, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 25-32

Alteration in mouse splenic phospholipid fatty acid composition and lymphoid cell populations by dietary fat

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The fatty acid composition of diacyl- and alkylacylglycerophosphocholine (PC), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylserine (PS), alkenylacyl-glycerophosphoethanolamine (aPE), and diacyl- and alkylacyl-glycerophosphoethanolamine (dPE) was assessed in isolated splenocytes from C3H/Hen mice fed one of four purified isocaloric diets for six weeks. Diets contained 20% by weight of either a high-linoleate sunflower oil (Hi 18∶2), a high-oleate sunflower oil (Hi 18∶1), a mixture of 17% menhaden fish oil and 3% high-linoleate sunflower oil (Hi n−3), or a mixture of 17% coconut oil and 3% high-linoleate sunflower oil (Hi SFA). Spleen weight and immune cell yield were significantly higher (P<0.05) in mice fed the Hi 18∶1 or the Hi n−3 diets compared with those fed the Hi 18∶2 and Hi SFA diets. Distinctive patterns of fatty acids were observed for each phospholipid in response to dietary fatty acids. Dietary fat significantly affected (P<0.05) total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in PC and dPE, total saturated fatty acids (SFA) in PC, total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and n−3 PUFA in all phospholipid classes examined. In mice fed the Hi n−3 diet, n−3 PUFA were significantly elevated, whereas n−6 PUFA decreased in all of the phospholipids. In these mice, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) was the predominant n−3 PUFA in PC and PI, whereas docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the major n−3 PUFA in aPE and PS. Interestingly, the ratios of n−3/n−6 PUFA in the phospholipids from these mice were 3.2, 2.4, 1.8, 0.8 and 0.8 for aPE, PS, dPE, PC and PI, respectively. These data suggest a preferential incorporation of n−3 PUFA into aPE, PS and dPE over PC and PI.