, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 209-245

The upper cretaceousLacazina limestone in the Basco-Cantabrian and Iberian basins of northern Spain: Cold-water grain associations in warm-water environments

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Summary

The Upper Santonian to Lower CampanianLacazina Limestone consists of massive, often amalgamated beds of packstones and grainstones which were deposited in a shallow marine environment. The most abundant skeletal components are miliolid foraminifera, echinoderm, bivalve and bryozoan fragments, peloids and sparse red algae. Small, solitary corals only occur sporadically. Hermatypic corals, sponges and green algae are missing. The series which reaches thicknesses between 60 m and 160 m, was sampled at intervals of 0.5 m at five localities. The petrographic features throughout the series are mainly a product of changing depositional energy. The limestones are well cemented. Diagenesis is characterized by a transition from marine phreatic to burial cementation. Syntaxial and blocky calcite cements predominate over early acicular to bladed and microgranular cements.

The faunal association within theLacazina Limestone exhibits features typical for temperate water i.e.foramol carbonates. On the other hand, oxygen (δ18O =-1.7 to −6.3 ‰ PDB) and carbon (δ13C to 3.0‰ PDB) isotope values of diagentically unaltered bivalve shells indicate warm surface waters corresponding better to the palaeogeographical situation of theLacazina Limestone. Nutrient-surplus is proposed as a limiting factor preventing the development of reefs and finally ofchlorozoan sediments.

In the sense of sequence stratigraphy, theLacazina Limestone is interpreted to contain transgressive and highstand systems tracts. This interpretation fits well into theHaq-Vail-curve. The series shows no visible high-frequency cyclicity in the field. Several cycles were found by means of principle component analysis and spectral analysis. Their relationships to the Milankovitch spectrum are discussed.

The ammonite fauna of the unit and of preceding sediments (late Coniacian to early Campanian) is described and some inoceramids are figured. They permit—for the first time—the exact dating of theLacazina Limestone in the Basco-Cantabrian Basin (BCB) and throw light on a prominent faunal change at the Coniacian/Santonian boundary. The Cenomanian to Coniacian ammonite faunas which were dominated by endemic Tethyan pseudoceratitic faunas are replaced by cosmopolitan species dominated by Madagascan elements. This drastic change permits speculations about the installation of a new oceanic current system in the Santonian.