Lipids

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 178–186

Linoleic acid requirement of rats fedtrans fatty acids

  • J. L. Zevenbergen
  • U. M. T. Houtsmuller
  • J. J. Gottenbos
Article

DOI: 10.1007/BF02535455

Cite this article as:
Zevenbergen, J.L., Houtsmuller, U.M.T. & Gottenbos, J.J. Lipids (1988) 23: 178. doi:10.1007/BF02535455

Abstract

The amount of linoleic acid required to prevent undesirable effects of C18trans fatty acids was investigated. In a first experiment, six groups of rats were fed diets with a high content oftrans fatty acids (20% of energy [en%]), and increasing amounts of linoleic acid (0.4 to 7.1 en%). In a second experiment, four groups of rats were fed diets designed to comparetrans fatty acids with saturated andcis-monounsaturated fatty acids of the same chain length at the 2 en% linoleic acid level. After 9–14 weeks, the oxygen uptake, lipid composition and ATP synthesis of heart and liver mitochondria were determined.

The phospholipid composition of the mitochondria did not change, but the fatty acid compositions of the two main mitochondrial phospholipids were influenced by the dietary fats.Trans fatty acids were incorporated in all phospholipids investigated. The linoleic acid level in the phospholipids, irrespective of the dietary content of linoleic acid, increased on incorporation oftrans fatty acids. The arachidonic acid level had decreased in most phospholipids in animals fed diets containing 2 en% linoleic acid. At higher linoleic acid intakes, the effect oftrans fatty acids on the phospholipid arachidonic acid level diminished. However, in heart mitochondrial phosphatidylethanolamine,trans fatty acids significantly increased the arachidonic acid level. Despite these changes in composition, neither the amount of dietary linoleic acid nor the addition oftrans fatty acids influenced the mitochondrial function. For rats, a level of 2 en% of linoleic acid is sufficient to prevent undesirable effects of high amounts of dietary C18trans fatty acids on the mitochondrial function.

Abbreviations

ADP/O

number of ADP mol converted into ATP per mol O

BHT

2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol

CB

cocoa butter

CL

cardiolipin

EDTA

ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid

GC

gas chromatography

HCNO

hydrogenated coconut oil

OV

olive oil

OV-LL

low-linoleic olive oil

PC

phosphatidylcholine

PE

phosphatidylethanolamine

PHSO

partially hydrogenated soybean oil

PI

phosphatidylinostol

PS

phosphatidylserine

QO2

oxygen consumption

rATP

rate of ATP synthesis

RCR

respiratory control ratio

S

sphingomyelin

SSO

sunflower seed oil

TLC

thin layer chromatography

Copyright information

© American Oil Chemists’ Society 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. L. Zevenbergen
    • 1
  • U. M. T. Houtsmuller
    • 1
  • J. J. Gottenbos
    • 1
  1. 1.Unilever Research Laboratorium VlaardingenVlaardingenThe Netherlands