, Volume 15, Issue 12, pp 1029-1036

Effects of dietarytrans acids on the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid in rat liver microsomes

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Abstract

Effects of dietarytrans acids on the interconversion of linoleic acid was studied using the liver microsomal fraction of rats fed a semipurified diet containing fat supplements of safflower oil (SAFF), hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO) at 5 and 20% levels or a 5% level of a supplement containing 50.3% linolelaidic and 24.3% elaidic acids devoid ofcis,cis-linoleic acid (TRANS). Growth rate was suppressed to a greater extent with the animals fed the 20% than the 5% level of the HCO-supplemented diets and still further by the TRANS diet compared to the groups fed the SAFF diets. Food intake was greater in the groups fed the HCO than the SAFF-supplemented diets, demonstrating the marked effect of an essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency on feed efficiency. In contrast to an EFA deficiency produced by the HCO supplement, which stimulated the in vitro liver microsomal biosynthesis of arachidonic acid, diets containing the TRANS supplement exacerabated the EFA deficiency and depressed 6-desaturase activity of the liver microsomal fraction. The liver microsomal fraction of the animals receiving this supplement also was more sensitive to fatty acid inhibition of the desaturation of linoleic acid than those obtained from animals fed either the SAFF or HCO diets. It is suggested that dietarytrans acids alter the physical properties of the 6-desaturase enzyme system, suppressing its activity, which increases the saturation of the tissue lipids and, in turn, the requirement for EFA or polyunsaturated fatty acids.