Effect of diabetes on levels and uptake of putative amino acid neurotransmitters in rat retina and retinal pigment epithelium
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Free amino acid levels and high affinity uptake of glutamate, aspartate γ-aminobutyrate, glycine and taurine were studied in retina and retinal pigment epithelium of streptozotocin diabetic rats. Results show that experimental diabetes produces a generalized fall in the content of free amino acids in both retina and retinal pigment epithelium. With regard to the high affinity uptake, in the two tissues of diabetic animals showed decreased aspartate uptake, enhanced taurine and γ-aminobutyrate uptake, whereas that of glycine and glutamate was unchanged. These results might suggest that diabetes causes alterations of specific amino acid transport systems and/or alterations of some cell populations.
Supplementary Material (0)
- Beck, T., and Lund-Andersen, H. 1990. Localised-retinal barrier leakage and retinal light sensitivity in diabetic retinopathy. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 74:388–392.
- Vinores, S. A., and Campochiaro, P. A. 1989. Prevention or moderation of some ultrastructural changes in the RPE and retina of galactosemic rats by aldose reductase inhibition. Exp Eye Res. 49:495–510. CrossRef
- Holopigian, K., Seiple, W., Lorenzo, M., and Carr, R. 1992. A comparison of photic and scotopic electroretinographic changes in early diabetic retinopathy. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33:2773–2780.
- Hood, D. C., and Birch, D. G. 1990. The a-wave of the human ERG and rod receptor function. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 31: 2070–2081.
- Moloney, J., and Drury, M. I. 1982. Retinopathy and retinal function in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 66: 759–761.
- Massey, S. 1990. Cell types using glutamate as a neurotransmitter in the vertebrate retina. Pages 399–425, in Osborne, N. N., and Chader, G. J. (eds.), Progress in retinal research, Vol. 9, Pergamon Press, Oxford.
- Marc, R. E. 1985. The Role of glycine in retinal circuitry Pages 119–258, in Morgan, W. W. (ed.), Retinal transmitters and modulators: models for the brain, Vol. 1, CRC. Press, Boca Raton. Fl.
- Yazulla, S. 1986. GABAergic mechanisms in the retina. Pages 1–51, in Osborne, N. N., and Chader, G. J. (eds.), Progress in retinal research, Vol. 5, Pergamn Press, Oxford.
- Macaione, S., Ruggeri, P., and Tucci, G. 1974. Free amino acids in developing rat retina. J. Neurochem. 22:887–891. CrossRef
- Hayes, K. C., Carey, R. E., and Schmidt, S. Y. 1975. Retinal degeneration associated with taurine deficiency in the cat. Science 188:949–951. CrossRef
- Logan W. J., and Snyder, S. H. 1971. Unique high affinity uptake systems for glycine, glutamic and aspartic acids in central nervous tissue of the rat. Nature 234:297–299. CrossRef
- Mackerer, C. R., Paquet, R. J., Mehlman, M. A., and Tobin, R. B. 1971. Oxidation and phosphorylation in liver mitochondria from alloxan and streptozotocin diabetic rats. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. 137:992–995.
- Salceda, R., and Saldaña, M. R. 1993. Glutamate and taurine uptake by retinal pigment epithelium during rat development. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 104C:311–316.
- Geddes, J. W., and Wood, J. D. 1984. Changes in the amino acid content of nerve ending (synaptosomes) induced by drugs that alter the metabolism of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid. J. Neurochem. 42:16–24. CrossRef
- Lenda, K., and Svenneby, G. 1980. Rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of amino acids in synaptosomal extracts. J. Chromatogr. 198:516–519. CrossRef
- Lowry, O. H., Rosebrough, N. J., Farr, A. L., and Randall, R. J. 1951. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 93:265–275.
- Salceda, R., and Vilchis, M. C. 1994. High-affinity uptake of glutamate and aspartate in the developing rat retina. Curr Eye Res. 13:297–302.
- Neal, M. J. 1976. Amino acid transmitter substances in the vertebrate retina. Gen. Pharmac. 7:321–332.
- Brosman, J. T., Man, K. W., Hall, D. E., Colbourne, S. A., and Bosnan, M. E. 1983. Interorgan metabolism of amino acids in streptozotocin diabetic ketoacidotic rat. Am. J. Physiol. 244:E151-E158.
- Fernstrom, M. H., Volk, E. A., Fernstrom, J. D., and Iuvone, M. 1986. Effect of tyrosine administration on DOPA accumulation in light and dark-adapted retinas from normal and diabetic rats. Life Sci. 39:2049–2057. CrossRef
- Berger, S. J., McDaniel, M. L., Carter, J. C., and Lowry, O. H. 1977. Distribution of four potential transmitter amino acids in monkey retina. J. Neurochem. 28:159–163. CrossRef
- Ross, C. D., Parli, J. A., and Godfrey, D. A. 1989. Quantitative distribution of six amino acids in rat retinal layers. Vision Res. 29:1079–1084. CrossRef
- Orr, H. T., Cohen, A. I., and Lowry, O. H. 1976. The distribution of taurine in the vertebrate retina. J. Neurochem. 26:609–611. CrossRef
- Wassle, H., and Boycot, B. B. 1991. Functional architecture of the mammalian retina. Physiol. Rev. 71:447–480.
- Ross, C. D., and Godfrey, D. A. 1985 Distributions of aspartate aminotransferase and malate dehydrogenase activities in rat retinal layers. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 33: 624–630.
- Brew, H., and Attwell, D. 1987. Electrogenic glutamate uptake is a major current carrier in the membrane of axolotl retinal glial cells. Nature 327:707–709. CrossRef
- Reddy, V. N. 1992. Study of the polyol pathway and cell permeability in human lens and retinal pigment epithelium in tissue culture. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33:2334–2339.
- Miller, S., and Steinberg, R. H. 1976. Transport of taurine, L-methionine and 3-0-methyl-D-glucose across frog retinal pigment epithelium. Exp. Eye. Res. 23:177–189. CrossRef
- Lajtha, A., and Sershen H. 1979. Alterations of amino acid transport in the central nervous system Pages 119–132, in Cunha-Vaz, J. G. (ed), The Blood-retinal barriers, Plenum Press, New York.
- Gilles, R., Kleinzeller, A., and Bolis, L. (eds) 1987. Current Topics in Membrane Transport. Cell volume control: fundamental and comparative aspects in animal cells. Vol. 30, Academic Press, San Diego California.
- Morán, J., Hurtado, S., and Pasantes-Morales, H. 1991. Similar properties of taurine release induced by potassium and hyposmolarity in the rat retina. Exp. Eye Res. 53:347–352. CrossRef
- Marc, R. E., and Lam, D. M. K. 1981. Uptake of aspartic and glutamic acid by goldfish photoreceptors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78:7185–7189. CrossRef
- Sarthy, P. V., Hendrickson, A. E., and Wu, J. Y. 1986. L-Glutamate: a neurotransmitter candidate for cone photoreceptors in the monkey retina. J. Neurosci. 6:637–643.
About this Article
- Effect of diabetes on levels and uptake of putative amino acid neurotransmitters in rat retina and retinal pigment epithelium
Volume 21, Issue 10 , pp 1167-1171
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- retinal pigment epithelium
- streptozotocin diabetes
- free amino acids
- Industry Sectors