Algorithmica

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 199–208

# Three-dimensional graph drawing

• R. F. Cohen
• Tao Lin
• F. Ruskey
Article

DOI: 10.1007/BF02522826

Cohen, R.F., Eades, P., Lin, T. et al. Algorithmica (1997) 17: 199. doi:10.1007/BF02522826

## Abstract

Graph drawing research has been mostly oriented toward two-dimensional drawings. This paper describes an investigation of fundamental aspects of three-dimensional graph drawing. In particular we give three results concerning the space required for three-dimensional drawings.

We show how to produce a grid drawing of an arbitraryn-vertex graph with all vertices located at integer grid points, in ann×2n×2n grid, such that no pair of edges cross. This grid size is optimal to within a constant. We also show how to convert an orthogonal two-dimensional drawing in anH×V integer grid to a three-dimensional drawing with$$\left\lceil {\sqrt H } \right\rceil \times \left\lceil {\sqrt H } \right\rceil \times V$$ volume. Using this technique we show, for example, that three-dimensional drawings of binary trees can be computed with volume$$\left\lceil {\sqrt n } \right\rceil \times \left\lceil {\sqrt n } \right\rceil \times \left\lceil {\log n} \right\rceil$$. We give an algorithm for producing drawings of rooted trees in which thez-coordinate of a node represents the depth of the node in the tree; our algorithm minimizes thefootprint of the drawing, that is, the size of the projection in thexy plane.

Finally, we list significant unsolved problems in algorithms for three-dimensional graph drawing.

### Key Words

Graph drawingAlgorithmsThree-dimensional

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1997

• R. F. Cohen
• 1