Aquatic metazoan communities in treeholes and bamboo stumps were studied on Tsushima Island, Japan, in March and June in relation to the habitat size and the resouce amount. The amount of leaf detritus increased with an increase in the capacity (volume) of the phytotelma. The input rate of leaves depended upon the opening area of the phytotelma. Twenty-one metazoan inhabitant taxa consisted of 17 dipteran saprophages, a helodid beetle larva, a nematoda, a naidid, and a predator,Toxorhynchites towadensis mosquito larva. Treeholes harbored 17 taxa and bamboo stumps 20; 16 taxa were common in both phytotelmata. The number of taxa and the biomass of metazoa per phytotelma was positively correlated with the capacity. The densities of dominant saprophages such as helodid, chironomid, andCulicoides larvae were positively correlated with the capacity of phytotelmata, and the variation in their abundance contributed much to the variation in the species composition in individual phytotelmata. With an increase in capacity, treeholes harbored more helodids andCulicoides, whereas bamboo stumps harbored more chironomids andDasyhelea. Thus, the amount of resource, species richness and biomass per phytotelma largely depended upon the capacity, and the difference in community structure between treeholes and bamboo stumps was attributable to the differential colonization patterns of different taxa.