Fukuda, H. & Sakagami, S.F. Res Popul Ecol (1968) 10: 31. doi:10.1007/BF02514731
The brood survival in honeybee workers was measured in order to obtain the data basic to the preparation of life tables. Under normal condition, that is, at the center of brood area, the survival is high. The survival/stage function runs 100.0 eggs, 94.2 unsealed brood (=feeding larvae), 86.4 sealed brood (=post-feeding larvae and pupae) and 85.1 adults. The total duration of immature stages is 20 days in 87.1%, 21 days in 8.3% and 19 days or more than 22 days in the residual fraction of successfully emerging workers.
The survival remarkably decreases at peripheral areas within the hive. Various factors affecting the brood survival are discussed and the importance of a dense worker cover on the brood area is stressed in relation to the maintenance of thermal conditions optimal to the brood. The occurrence of one factor, which is not expected in solitary animals, the self-control of population by egg eating, is pointed out.