Refinement equations with nonnegative coefficients

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In this paper we analyze solutions of the n-scale functional equation Ф(x) = Σk∈ℤ Pk Ф(nx−k), where n≥2 is an integer, the coefficients {Pk} are nonnegative and Σpk = 1. We construct a sharp criterion for the existence of absolutely continuous solutions of bounded variation. This criterion implies several results concerning the problem of integrable solutions of n-scale refinement equations and the problem of absolutely continuity of distribution function of one random series. Further we obtain a complete classification of refinement equations with positive coefficients (in the case of finitely many terms) with respect to the existence of continuous or integrable compactly supported solutions.

Communicated by Albert Cohen