, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 49-56

The influence of liver dysfunction on cyclosporine pharmacokinetics —A comparison between 70 per cent hepatectomy and complete bile duct ligation in dogs—

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Abstract

The influence of experimentally induced hepatic dysfunction on the pharmacokinetics of Cyclosporine A (CsA) was determined in dogs. The pharmacokinetics of oral (PO) and intravenous (IV) CsA were studied before and after 70 per cent hepatectomy or complete bile duct ligation (CBDL). Changes in liver function were monitored by serial measurements of serum bilirubin, and by the maximum removal rate (Rmax) and plasma disappearance rate (ICG-K) of indocyanine green (ICG). Concentrations of CsA in whole blood were measured by HPLC. Seventy per cent hepatectomy caused significant liver dysfunction: the ICG-Rmax decreased by 47.7±7.1 per cent (mean±SD) and the ICG-K decreased by 61.3±9.7 per cent during the first week after hepatectomy. At the same time, the systemic clearance (CLs) of IV-CsA decreased by 43.9±8.2 per cent, the area under the concentration curve (AUC) of IV-CsA increased by 35.4±20.8 per cent and the bioavailability of CsA decreased by 26.4±14.8 per cent. CBDL also induced significant liver dysfunction: the ICG-Rmax decreased by 39.1±12.8 per cent and the ICG-K decreased by 65.6±3.6 per cent in the second week after the operation. During the same period, the AUC of PO-CsA decreased by 69.9±10.7 per cent and the bioavailability of CsA also decreased markedly by 73.9±15.6 per cent. These data indicate that hepatic impairment significantly influences the pharmacokinetics of CsA, not only by the changes in intestinal absorption, but also by those in hepatic, metabolism. Dose adjustment is therefore necessary in the presence of hepatic dysfunction in order to maintain an adequate blood concentration of CsA without causing side effects.

This research was performed in the Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Health Center, University of Pittsburgh, USA