# Complexity of protein folding

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DOI: 10.1007/BF02460704

- Cite this article as:
- Fraenkel, A.S. Bltn Mathcal Biology (1993) 55: 1199. doi:10.1007/BF02460704

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## Abstract

It is believed that the native folded three-dimensional conformation of a protein is its lowest free energy state, or one of its lowest. It is shown here that both a two-and three-dimensional mathematical model describing the folding process as a free energy minimization problems is NP-hard. This means that the problem belongs to a large set of computational problems, assumed to be very hard (“conditionally intractable”). Some of the possible ramifications of this results are speculated upon.