The deduction of the level of the human larynx from bony landmarks: Its relevance to the evolutionos speech
- C. Lap Ki
- … show all 1 hide
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
It has been claimed that the capacity for speech in hominids is related to the level of the larynx relative to its surrounding structures. Lower positioned larynges, such as those found in modern humans, have been said to be a prerequisite for articulate speech. In certain fossil hominids, the level of the larynx has been deduced from the angulation of the styloid process and the distance from the posterior nasal spine to the basion (the distance PB). The hypothesis that correlations exist between these bony features and the level of the larynx was tested in this study. The inclination of the styloid process and the level of the larynx were measured on human cadavers and on lateral x-ray cephalograms of the same cadavers. In addition, the distance PB and the level of the larynx were measured on lateral cephalograms of living adult humans. The inclination of the styloid process and the distance PB were also measured on a series of adult dry skulls. Pearson's correlation coefficients for the three sets of measurements were calculated. Only slight correlations between the inclination of the styloid process, the distance PB, and the level the larynx were found. The results of this study indicate that accurate prediction of the level of the larynx from the inclination of the styloid process and the distance PB is not possible.
- Arensburg B., Tillier A.M., Vandermeersch B., Duday H., Schepartz L.A. &Rak I., 1989.A middle palaeolithic human hyoid bone. Nature, 338: 758–760. CrossRef
- Dubrul E.L., 1977.Early hominid feeding mechanisms. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 47: 305–320. CrossRef
- Falk D., 1975.Comparative anatomy of the larynx in man and the chimpanzee: implication for language in Neanderthal. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 43: 123–132. CrossRef
- Falk D., 1982.Mapping fossil endocast. In: Armstrong E. and Falk D. (eds.) Primate Brain Evolution. New York and London: Plenum, pp. 217–226.
- Holloway R.L., 1972.New Australopithecine endocast, SK 1585, from Swartkrans, South Africa. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 37: 173–186. CrossRef
- Holloway R.L., 1976.Paleoneurological evidence for language origins. Ann. NY. Acad. Sci., 280: 331–348.
- Howells W., 1973.Evolution of the genus Homo. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
- Katz J.J., 1976.A hypothesis about the uniqueness of natural language. Ann. NY. Acad. Sci., 280: 33–41.
- Laitman J.T., 1977.The ontogenetic and phylogenetic development of the upper respiratory system and basicranium in man. Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University.
- Laitman J.T., 1978.Developmental change in a basicranial line and its relationship to upper respiratory system in living primates. Am. J. Anat., 152: 467–482. CrossRef
- Laitman J.T., 1982.The basicranium of Plio-Pleistocene hominids as an indicator of their upper respiratory system. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 59: 323–343. CrossRef
- Laitman J.T., 1984.The anatomy of human speech. Nat. Hist. 8/84:20–27.
- Lanz T. Von &Wachsmuth W., 1955.Praktische Anatomie. Berlin, Göttingen, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.
- Lemay M., 1975.The language capacity of Neanderthal man. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 42: 9–14. CrossRef
- Lemay M., 1976.Morphological cerebral asymmetries of modern man, fossil man, and non-human primates. Ann. NY. Acad. Sci., 280: 331–348.
- Lieberman P., Klatt D.H. &Wilson W.A., 1969.Vocal tract limitations on the vocal repertoires of rhesus monkey and other nonhuman primates. Science, 164: 1185–1187.
- Lieberman P. &Crelin E.S., 1971.On the speech of Neanderthal man. Linguistic Inquiry, 2: 203–222.
- Lieberman P., Crelin E.S. &Klatt D.H., 1972.Phonetic ability and related anatomy of the newborn and adult human, Neanderthal man and the chimpanzee. Am. Anthrop., 74: 287–307. CrossRef
- Lieberman P., 1976.Structural harmony and Neanderthal speech: A reply to Lemay. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop., 45: 493–496. CrossRef
- Scott J.H. &Symons N.B.B., 1977.Introduction to dental anatomy. Edinburgh, London, Melbourne, and New York: Churchill Livingstone.
- Stafne E.C. &Hollinshead W.H., 1962.Roentgenographic observations on the stylohyoid chain. Oral. Surg., 1962: 1195–1200. CrossRef
- Wind J., 1978.Fossil evidence for primate vocalisation? In: Chivers D.J. and Joysey K.A., (eds): 87–92. Recent advances in primatology, vol. 3, Evolution. Academic Press, London, New York, San Francisco.
- Zuckerman S., Asthon E. H. &Pearson J. B., 1962.The styloid of the primate skull. Bibl. Primat., 1: 217–228.
- The deduction of the level of the human larynx from bony landmarks: Its relevance to the evolutionos speech
Volume 6, Issue 3 , pp 249-261
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- styloid process
- basicranial anatomy
- level of larynx
- evolution of speech
- C. Lap Ki (1)
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Anatomy, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong