Reduced incretin effect in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes
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- Nauck, M., Stöckmann, F., Ebert, R. et al. Diabetologia (1986) 29: 46. doi:10.1007/BF02427280
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Integrated incremental immunoreactive insulin and connecting peptide responses to an oral glucose load of 50 g and an “isoglycaemic” intravenous glucose infusion, respectively, were measured in 14 Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients and 8 age- and weight-matched metabolically healthy control subjects. Differences between responses to oral and intravenous glucose administration are attributed to factors other than glucose itself (incretin effect). Despite higher glucose increases, immunoreactive insulin and connecting peptide responses after oral glucose were delayed in diabetic patients. Integrated responses were not significantly different between both groups. However, during “isoglycaemic” intravenous infusion, insulin and connecting peptide responses were greater in diabetic patients than in control subjects as a consequence of the higher glycaemic stimulus. The contribution of incretin factors to total insulin responses was 72.8 ± 6.9% (100% = response to oral load) in control subjects and 36.0 ± 8.8% in diabetic patients (p ≦ 0.05). The contribution to connecting peptide responses was 58.4 ± 7.6% in control subjects and 7.6 ± 14.5% (p ≦ 5 0.05) in diabetic patients. Ratios of integrated insulin to connecting peptide responses suggest a reduced (hepatic) insulin extraction in control subjects after oral as compared to intravenous glucose. This was not the case in diabetic patients. Immunoreactive gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses were not different between control subjects and diabetic patients. A reduced or lost incretin effect in the face of normal gastric inhibitory polypeptide response in Type 2 diabetic patients may be explained by decreased sensitivity of the B cells towards the insulinotropic effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide or to hyposecretion or reduced effectiveness of as yet unidentified humoral or nervous gut factors with incretin activity.