Original

Intensive Care Medicine

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 24-31

First online:

A five-year study of severe community-acquired pneumonia with emphasis on prognosis in patients admitted to an intensive care unit

  • O. LeroyAffiliated withIntensive Care and Infectious Diseases Unit, Lille University Medical School
  • , C. SantréAffiliated withIntensive Care and Infectious Diseases Unit, Lille University Medical School
  • , C. BeuscartAffiliated withIntensive Care and Infectious Diseases Unit, Lille University Medical School
  • , H. GeorgesAffiliated withIntensive Care and Infectious Diseases Unit, Lille University Medical School
  • , B. GueryAffiliated withIntensive Care and Infectious Diseases Unit, Lille University Medical School
  • , J. M. JacquierAffiliated withIntensive Care and Infectious Diseases Unit, Lille University Medical School
  • , G. BeaucaireAffiliated withIntensive Care and Infectious Diseases Unit, Lille University Medical School

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Abstract

Objectives

To characterize the epidemiology and to determine the prognosis factors in severe community-acquired pneumonia among patients admitted to an intensive care unit.

Design

Retrospective clinical study.

Setting

Intensive Care and Infectious Diseases Unit of a municipal general hospital of Lille University Medical School.

Patients

299 consecutive patients exhibiting severe community-acquired pneumonia.

Measurements and results

On admission to ICU, 149 patients required mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure and 44 exhibited septic shock. Pulmonary involvement was bilateral in 71 patients. There were 260 organisms isolated from 197 patients (65.9%), the most frequent beingStreptococcus pneumoniae (n=80),Staphylococcus spp. (n=57) and Gram-negative bacilli (n=81). Overall mortality was 28.5% (85 patients). According to univariate analysis, mortality was associated with age over 60 years, anticipated death within 5 years, immunosuppression, shock, mechanical ventilation, bilateral pulmonary involvement, bacteremia, neutrophil count <3500/mm3, total serum protein level <45 g/l, serum creatinine >15 mg/l, non-aspiration pneumonia, ineffective initial therapy and complications. Multivariate analysis selected only 5 factors significantly associated with prognosis: anticipated death within 5 years, shock, bacteremia, non-pneumonia-related complications and ineffective initial therapy.

Conclusion

The effectiveness of the initial therapy appears to be the most significant prognosis factor and, as the one and only related to the initial medical intervention, suggests a need for permanent optimization of our antimicrobial strategies.

Key words

Community-acquired pneumonia Prognosis Epidemiology Critically ill patients