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Contributions to the theory of the riemann zetafunction and the theory of the distribution of primes
 G. H. Hardy,
 J. E. Littlewood
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Get AccessSome of the results of which this memoir contains the first full account have already been stated shortly and incompletely in the following notes and abstracts.G. H. Hardy: (1) ‘On the zeros ofRiemann's Zetafunction’,Proc. London Math. Soc. (records of proceedings at meetings), ser. 2, vol. 13, 12, March 1914, p. xxix; (2) ‘Sur les zéros de la fonction ζ(s), deRiemann’,Comptes Rendus, 6 April 1914.J. E. Littlewood: ‘Sur la distribution des nombres premiers’,Comptes Rendus, 22 June 1914.G. H. Hardy andJ. E. Littlewood: (1) ‘New proofs of the primenumber theorem and similar theorems’,Quarterly Journal, vol. 46, 1915, pp. 215–219; (2) ‘On the zeros of theRiemann Zetafunction’ and (3) ‘On an assertion ofTschebyschef’,Proc. London Math. Soc. (records etc.), ser. 2, vol. 14, 1915, p. xiv.
 Math Annalen, vol. 57, 1903, pp. 195–204;Landau,Handbuch, pp. 711et seq. Naturally our argument does not give so large a value ofK asSchmidt's. The actual inequalities proved bySchmidt are not the inequalities (1. 143) but the substantially equivalent inequalities (1. 51).
 Tschebyschef,Bulletin de l'Acadénie Impériale des Sciences de St. Petersbourg, vol. 11, 1853, p. 208, andOeuvres, vol. 1, p. 697;Landau,Rendiconti di Palermo, vol. 24, 1907, pp. 155–156.
 Landau,Hadbuch p. 816
 Acta Mathematica, vol. 40, 1916, pp. 185–190.
 Math. Annalen, vol. 71, 1912, pp. 548–564
 The idea which dominates the critical stage of the argument is alsoLandau's, but is to be found in another of his papers (‘Über die Anzahl der Gitterpunkte in gewissen Bereichen’,Göttinger Nachrichten, 1912, pp. 687–771, especially p. 707, Hilfsatz 10).
 SeeGram,Acta Mathematica, vol. 27, 1903, pp. 289–304;Lindelöf,Acta Societatis Fennicœ, vol. 31, 1913, no. 3;Backlund,Oversigt af Finska Vetenskap Societetens Förhandlingar, vol. 54, 1911–12, A, no. 3; and further entries under these names inLandau's bibliography. CrossRef
 Comptes Rendus, 6 April, 1914.
 Math. Annalen, vol. 76, 1915, pp. 212–243.
 SeeLandau,Handbuch, pp. 401et seq.
 For an explanation of this notation see our paper ‘Some Problems of Diophantine Approximation (II)’,Acta Mathematica, vol. 37, pp. 193–238 (p. 225).
 Comptes Rendus, 22 June 1914.
 See the references inLandau's bibliography, andLehmer's List of prime numbers from 1 to 10,006,721 (Washington, 1914).
 Bohr andLandau,Göttinger Nachrichten, 1910, pp. 303–330.
 Comptes Rendus, 29 Jan. 1912.
 Math. Annalen, vol. 74, 1913, pp. 3–30.
 Compare,Landau,Math. Annalen, vol. 61, 1905, pp. 527–550. CrossRef
 SeeLandau,Prace Matematyczno Fizyczne, vol. 21, p. 170.
 Vol. 43, 1914, pp. 134–147. Ifan satisfies the second form of condition (i), the seriesf(y) is necessarily convergent (absolutely) fory>0, so that the first clause of condition (ii) is tnen unnecessary. There are more general forms of this theorem, involving functions such as \(y^{  a} \left\{ {\log \left( {\frac{1}{y}} \right)} \right\}^{a_1 } \left\{ {\log \log \left( {\frac{1}{y}} \right)} \right\}^{a_2 } \cdots \cdots .,\) which we have not troubled to work out in detail. The relationf(y)∼Ay ^{−a} in condition (ii) must be interpreted, in the special case whenA=0, as meaningf(y)=0(ya); and a corresponding change must be made in the conclusion.
 The argument is so much like that ofLandau (Prace MatematycznoFizyczne, vol. 21, pp. 173et seq.) that it is hardly worth while to set it out in detail. We applyCauchy's Theorem to the rectangle \(c  iT,x  iT,x + iT,c  iT,\) and then suppose thatT→∞.
 Handbuch, p. 874.
 l. c. Handbuch, pp. 128, 130 (pp. 173et scq.)
 The passage from (2. 211) to (2. 212) requires in reality a difficult and delicate discussion. If we suppress this part of the proof, it is because no arguments are required which involve the slightest novelty of idea. All the materials for the proof are to be found inLandau'sHandbuch (pp. 333–368). But the problem treated there is considerably more difficult than this one, inasmuch as the integrals and series dealt with are not absolutely convergent. Here everything is absolutely convergent, since Γ(σ+ti)y ^{σ+ti }, where ℜ(ity)>o, tends to zero like an exponential whent→∞.
 Landau,Handbuch, p. 336.
 This is merely another form of the ordinary formula which definesBrrnoulli's num. bers. That \(\sum {e^{  ny} = \frac{I}{y} + \Phi \left( y \right)} \) where ϕ(y) is a powerseries convergent for y<2π, is of course evident.
 Gram,l. c.. CrossRef
 Handbuch, pp. 337et seq. It is known that, on theRiemann hypothesis, \(N\left( {T + I} \right)  N\left( T \right) \sim \frac{{\log T}}{{2\pi }}\) (Bohr, Landau, Littlewood,Bulletins de l'Académie Royale de Belgique, 1913, no. 12, pp. 1–35).
 In our paper ‘Some Problems of Diophantine Approximation’,Acta Mathematica, vol. 37, p. 225, we definedf=Q(ϕ) as meaningf≠o(ϕ). The notation adopted here is a natural extension.
 Schmidt,Math. Annalen, vol. 57, 1903, pp. 195–204; see alsoLandau,Handbuch, pp. 712et seq. The inequalities are stated bySchmidt andLandau in terms of II(x). CrossRef
 M. Riesz,Comptes Rendus, 5 July and 22 Nov. 1909.
 M. Riesz,Comptes Rendus, 12 June 1911.
 This formula is a special case of a general formula, due toRiesz and included as Theorem 40 in the Tract ‘The general theory of Dirichlet's series’ (Cambridge Tracts in Mathematics, no. 18, 1915) byG. H. Hardy andM. Riesz.
 See 2.21 for our justification of the omission of the details of the proof. Here again the integrals which occur are absolutely convergent.
 It σ is an integer, thenS(I/ω) is a finite series which may include logarithms. It is in any case without importance.
 See I. 2.
 The evidence for the truth of this hypothesis is substantiantially the same as that for the truth of theRiemann hypothesis.Landau (Math. Ann., vol. 76, 1915, pp. 212–243) has proved that there are infinitely many zeros on the line σ=1/2. CrossRef
 The ‘trivial’ zeros ofL(s) ares=−1, −3, −5, ...: seeLandau,Handbuch, p. 498. \(\Phi \left( y \right) = \Phi _1 \left( y \right) + y\log \left( {\frac{1}{y}} \right)\Phi _2 \left( y \right).\)
 Our argument is modelled on one applied to the Zetafunction byJensen,Comptes Rendus, 25 april 1887.
 It is fact true that ϒ_{1} > 6 seeGrossmann,Dissertation, Göttingen, 1913.
 Cf.W. H. Young,Proc. London Math. Soc., ser. 2, vol. 12, pp. 41–70.
 We suppose thata _{1}=0,a _{1}=0, as evidently we may do without loss of generality.
 See the footnote to p. 140.
 SeeLandau,Handbuch, p. 816.
 Using the functional equation.
 Whittaker, andWatson,Modern Analysis et. 2, pp. 367, 377.
 These transformations are the same as those used byHardy,Comptes Rendus, 6 April 1914.
 In forming the series of residues we have assumed, for simplicity, that the poles are all simple.
 We can prove thatsome such sequence of curves as is referred to above exists, and that our series can be rendered convergent bysome process of bracketing terms: but we can prove nothing about the distribution of the curves or the size of the brackets.
 As we do not profess to be able to give rigorous proofs of the main formulae of this subsection, it seems hardly worth which to state such conditions in detail.
 Mellin,Acta mathematica, vol. 25, 1902, pp. 139–164, 165–184 (p.159): see alsoNielsen,Handbuch der Theorie der GammaFunktion, pp. 221et seq. CrossRef
 SeeRiez,Acta mathematica, vol. 40, 1916, pp. 185–190. The actual formula communicated to us byRiesz (in 1912) was not this one, nor the formula for \(\frac{I}{{\zeta \left( s \right)}}\) , contained in his memoir, but the analgogous formula for \(\frac{I}{{\zeta \left( {s + I} \right)}}\) . All of these formulae may be deduced fromMellin's inversion formula already referred to in 2.53. The idea of obtaining a necessary and sufficient condition of this character for the truth of theRiemann hypothesis is of courseRiesz's and not ours. CrossRef
 Comptes Rendus, 29 Jan. 1912.
 Math. Annalen, vol. 71, 1912, pp. 548–564.
 Landau,Handbuch, p. 336.
 Observing that \(\frac{I}{x}< \frac{I}{{x_0 }}\) , wherex _{0}=θ _{0} ^{ a } , and that logxT ^{ a }>alogT+logx _{0}.
 Landau,Handbuch, p. 339.
 Cf. Clandau,Math. Annalen, vol. 71, 1912, p. 557.
 Landau,Handbuch, p. 8c6.
 The fundamental idea in the analysis which follows is the same as that ofLandau's memoir ‘Über die Anzahl der Gitterpunkte in gewissen Bereichen’ (Göttinger Nachrichten, 1912, pp. 687–771).
 The terms have to be retained inJ _{2} because ε/e, though outside the range of integration, may be very near to one of the limits.
 See section 1 for a summary of previous results.
 The general idea used in this part of the proof is identical with that introduced byLandau in his simplification ofHardy's proof of the existence of an infinity of roots (seeLandau,Math. Annalen, vol. 76, 1915, pp. 212–243). CrossRef
 Landau,Handbuch, p. 868.
 Landau,l. c. supra Handbuch, p. 868.
 Landau,Handbuch, p. 806.
 Landau,l.c. supra Handbuch, p. 806.
 Landau,Handbuch, pp. 712et seq.
 It has been shown byBohr, Landau, andLittlewood (»Sur la fonction ξ(s) dans le voisinage de la droite σ=1/2»,Bulletins de l'Académie Royale de Belgique, 1913, pp. 1144–1173) that, on theRiemann hypothesis (which we are now assuming), theO in this formula and the correspondingO in (5. 121) can each be replaced byo.
 See pp. 387, 351.
 SeeBohr andLandau,Göttinger Nachrichten, 1910, pp. 303–330, and a number of later papers byBohr.
 The notation is that of our first paper, ‘Some problems of Diophantine Approximation’,Acta Mathematica, vol. 37, pp. 155–193.
 Göttinger Nachrichten, 1910, p. 316.
 Title
 Contributions to the theory of the riemann zetafunction and the theory of the distribution of primes
 Journal

Acta Mathematica
Volume 41, Issue 1 , pp 119196
 Cover Date
 19161201
 DOI
 10.1007/BF02422942
 Print ISSN
 00015962
 Online ISSN
 18712509
 Publisher
 Kluwer Academic Publishers
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 Authors

 G. H. Hardy ^{(1)}
 J. E. Littlewood ^{(1)}
 Author Affiliations

 1. Trinity College, Cambridge