The brush-stick of chimpanzees found in south-west Cameroon and their cultural characteristics
- Yukimaru Sugiyama
- … show all 1 hide
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The characteristics of the tool-behavior of chimpanzees were studied at the Campo Animal Reserve, in the south-west corner of the Republic of Cameroon between December 1984 and January 1985. The study area comprised tropical rain forest of which the canopy reached 30 m in height. Although the chimpanzees were shy, evidence of the tool-behavior could be obtained.
No evidence of nut-cracking ofCoula edulis by the chimpanzees using stone or wood hammers was found, although mature trees of this species were common in the study area and their nuts were well known to be cracked by the chimpanzees of Tai, Côte d'Ivoire, using stone or wood hammers during the fruiting season. The termite-tunnel probing-stalk which is commonly used by the chimpanzees at Gombe, Tanzania, and a few other study sites may not be employed by the chimpanzees of the present study area for collecting termites from the inside of the nest. One hundred and ten termitemound digging-sticks were found on the surface ofMacrotermes mulleri nests. Some sticks were found stabbing into the mound and others were just left on the mound where the marks of crushing were sometimes observed. Some stumps and upper parts of young trees which were abandoned after making stick-tools were identified and some sticks were confirmed to have been carried away. The length of the sticks (30.5–73.5 cm, $\bar x$ =46.8 cm) and their width (diameter) (4–15 mm, $\bar x$ =9.9 mm) were similar to those noted at Rio Muni (Equatorial Guinea). However, nearly half of the sticks in the present study area had a “brush” at one end which was seldom clogged with mud. The brush might be used for catching termites effectively.
Local differences in the chimpanzee cultural patterns were examined and confirmed for crosscultural variation.
- Anderson, J. R., E. A. Williamson, &J. Carter, 1983. Chimpanzees of Sapo Forest, Liberia: Density, nest, tools, and meat-eating.Primates, 24: 594–601. CrossRef
- Boesch, C. &H. Boesch, 1981. Sex differences in the use of natural hammers by wild chimpanzees: A preliminary report.J. Human Evol., 10: 585–593.
- ———— & ————, 1983. Optimisation of nut-cracking with natural hammers by wild chimpanzees.Behaviour, 83: 265–286.
- ———— & ————, 1984. Mental map in wild chimpanzees: An analysis of hammer transports for nut cracking.Primates, 25: 160–170. CrossRef
- Goodall, J., 1983. Population dynamics during a 15 year period in one community of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe National Park, Tanzania.Z. Tierpsychol., 61: 1–60.
- Hladik, C. M., 1973. Alimentation et activité d'un groupe de chimpanzés réintroduits en forêt Gabonaise.Terre et Vie, 27: 343–413.
- Hoshino, J., 1985. Feeding ecology of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) in the Republic of Cameroon.Primates, 26: 248–273.
- ————,A. Mori, H. Kudo, &M. Kawai, 1984. Preliminary report on the grouping of mandrillus (Mandrillus sphinx) in Cameroon.Primates, 25: 295–307. CrossRef
- Jones, C. &J. Sabater Pí, 1969. Sticks used by chimpanzees in Rio Muni, West Africa.Nature, 223: 100–101.
- Lawick-Goodall, J. van, 1973. Cultural elements in chimpanzee community. In:Precultural Primate Behavior,E. W. Menzel,Jr. (ed.), S. Karger, Basel, pp. 26–50.
- Letouzey, R., 1968.Etude phytogéographique du Cameroun. P. Lechevalier, Paris.
- McGrew, W. C., 1974. Tool use by wild chimpanzees in feeding upon driver ants.J. Human Evol., 3: 501–508.
- ————, 1983. Animal foods in the diets of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Why cross-cultural variation?J. Ethol., 1: 46–61. CrossRef
- ————,C. E. G. Tutin, &P. J. Baldwin, 1979. Chimpanzees, tools, and termites: Cross-cultural comparisons of Senegal, Tanzania, and Rio Muni.Man (N.S.), 14: 185–214.
- ———— &M. E. Rogers, 1983. Chimpanzees, tools, and termites: New record from Gabon.Amer. J. Primatol., 5: 171–174. CrossRef
- Nishida, T., 1979. The social structure of chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains. In:The Great Apes, Vol. 5,D. A. Humburg &E. R. McCown (eds.), Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, pp. 73–121.
- ————, 1980. Culture of chimpanzees.Kagaku, 50: 146–154. (in Japanese)
- ———— &M. Hiraiwa, 1982. Natural history of a tool-using behavior by wild chimpanzees in feeding upon wood-boring ants.J. Human Evol., 11: 73–99.
- ———— &S. Uehara, 1980. Chimpanzees, tools, and termites: Another example from Tanzania.Curr. Anthropol., 21: 671–672.
- Ohigashi, H. &K. Koshimizu, 1985. Search for useful plants in tropical forest of Cameroon.Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi, 59: 459–463. (in Japanese)
- Sabater Pí, J., 1974. An elementary industry of the chimpanzees in the Okorobiko Mountains, Rio Muni (Republic of Equatorial Guinea), West Africa.Primates, 15: 351–364. CrossRef
- Struhsaker, T. T. &P. Hunkeler, 1971. Evidence of tool-using by chimpanzees in the Ivory Coast.Folia Primatol., 15: 212–219.
- Sugiyama, Y., 1978.Peoples and Chimpanzees of Bossou—Ecology of West African Remote Country. Kinokuniya-Shoten, Tokyo. (in Japanese)
- ————, 1984.Human Nature in Non-human Primates. Nobunkyo, Tokyo. (in Japanese)
- ———— &J. Koman, 1979. Tool-using and making behavior in wild chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea.Primates, 20: 513–524.
- Teleki, G., 1974. Chimpanzee subsistence technology: materials and skills.J. Human Evol., 3: 575–594.
- Whitesides, G., 1985. Nut-cracking by wild chimpanzees in Sierra Leone, West Africa.Primates, 26: 91–94.
- The brush-stick of chimpanzees found in south-west Cameroon and their cultural characteristics
Volume 26, Issue 4 , pp 361-374
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Termite-mound digging-stick
- Cross-cultural variation
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, 484, Aichi, Japan