, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 145–150

Reactions of a group of pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) to their mirror-images: Evidence of self-recognition


  • Vera Walraven
    • Department of BiologyUniversity of Antwerp
  • Linda van Elsacker
    • Royal Zoological Society Antwerp
  • Rudolf Verheyen
    • Department of BiologyUniversity of Antwerp
Short Communication

DOI: 10.1007/BF02381922

Cite this article as:
Walraven, V., van Elsacker, L. & Verheyen, R. Primates (1995) 36: 145. doi:10.1007/BF02381922


A group of seven pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) was tested for their mirror-image reactions during a ten-day experiment. The time spent viewing the mirror waned quickly. Little social responses directed towards the mirror were observed. Self-directed behaviors were shown from testday one on. It was concluded that four out of seven animals could correctly identify their mirror-image, one infant was not (yet) able to do so, and for two other individuals the results were inconclusive.

Key Words

Self-recognitionPygmy chimpanzeePan paniscusMirror

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1995