Chimpanzees of Sapo Forest, Liberia: Density, nests, tools and meat-eating
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Two months were spent surveying for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in the Sapo Forest, eastern Liberia. The population density, as estimated from the number of nests found on transects, appears lower than that in other forest sites. Nests were more similar to those of other forest-living chimpanzees than of a savannah population. Most nests were found in areas of primary forest. Evidence was found of the chimpanzees using stones as hammers to break open four species of nut; there may be differences in materials and techniques used in this behaviour between Sapo chimpanzees and those in Tai Forest, Ivory Coast. Analysis of faeces revealed that Sapo chimpanzees eat meat.
- Baldwin, P. J., W. C. McGrew &C. E. G. Tutin, 1982. Wide-ranging chimpanzees at Mt. Assirik, Senegal.Int. J. Primatol., 3: 367–385.
- ————,J. Sabater Pí, W. C. McGrew &C. E. G. Tutin, 1981. Comparisons of nests made by different populations of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).Primates, 22: 474–486. CrossRef
- Beatty, H., 1951. A note on the behavior of the chimpanzee.J. Mammal., 32: 118.
- Boesch, C., 1978. Nouvelles observations sur les chimpanzés de la forêt de Tai (Côté-d'Ivoire).Terre et Vie, 32: 195–201.
- ———— &H. Boesch, 1981. Sex differences in the use of natural hammers by wild chimpanzees: A preliminary report.J. Human Evol., 10: 585–593.
- ———— & ————, 1983. Optimisation of nut-cracking with natural hammers by wild chimpanzees.Behaviour, 83: 265–286.
- Busse, C., 1977. Chimpanzee predation as possible factor in the evolution of red colobus monkey social organization.Evolution, 31: 907–911.
- Jones, C. &J. Sabater Pí, 1971.Comparative ecology of Gorilla gorilla (Savage and Wyman)and Pan troglodytes (Blumenbach)in Rio Muni, West Africa. Bibliotheca Primatologica, No. 13, S. Karger, Basel.
- Kano, T., 1972. Distribution and adaptation of the chimpanzee on the eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika.Kyoto Univ. Afr. Stud., 7: 37–129.
- ————, 1983. An ecological study of the pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) of Yalosidi, Republic of Zaïre.Int. J. Primatol., 4: 1–31.
- McBeath, N. &W. C. McGrew, 1982. Tools used by wild chimpanzees to obtain termites at Mt. Assirik, Senegal: The influence of habitat.J. Human Evol., 11: 65–72.
- McGrew, W. C., C. E. G. Tutin &P. J. Baldwin, 1979. Chimpanzees, tools and termites: Crosscultural comparisons of Senegal, Tanzania and Rio Muni.Man (N.S.), 14: 185–214.
- ————,P. J. Baldwin &C. E. G. Tutin, 1981. Chimpanzees in a hot, dry and open habitat: Mt. Assirik, Senegal, West Africa.J. Human Evol., 10: 227–244
- Nishida, T. &M. Hiraiwa, 1982. Natural history of tool-using behaviour by wild chimpanzees in feeding upon wood-boring ants.J. Human Evol., 11: 73–99.
- ———— &S. Uehara, 1980. Chimpanzees, tools and termites: Another example from Tanzania.Curr. Anthropol., 21: 671–672.
- Rahm, U., 1972. L'emploi d'outils par les chimpanzés de l'ouest de la Côté-d'Ivoire.Terre et Vie, 25: 506–509.
- Reynolds, V. &F. Reynolds, 1965. Chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest. In:Primate Behavior,I. DeVore (ed.), Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, pp. 368–424.
- Robinson, P. T. &A. Peal, 1981. Liberia's wildlife—the time for decision.Zoonooz, 54: 7–20.
- Savage, T. S. &J. Wyman, 1844. Observations on the external characters and habits of theTroglodytes niger,Geoff.—and on its organization.Boston J. Nat. Hist., 4: 362–386.
- Struhsaker, T. T. &P. Hunkeler, 1971. Evidence of tool-using by chimpanzees in the Ivory Coast.Folia Primatol., 15: 212–219.
- Sugiyama, Y., 1968. Social organization of chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest, Uganda.Primates, 9: 225–258. CrossRef
- ————, 1981. Observations on the population dynamics and behavior of wild chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea, in 1979–1980.Primates, 22: 435–444. CrossRef
- ———— &J. Koman, 1979a. Social structure and dynamics of wild chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea.Primates, 20: 323–339.
- ———— & ————, 1979b. Tool-using and -making behavior in wild chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea.Primates, 20: 513–524.
- Teleki, G., 1973.The Predatory Behavior of Wild Chimpanzees. Bucknell Univ. Press, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania.
- Tutin, C. E. G. & M. Fernandez, 1981. Census of the gorillas and chimpanzees of Gabon: Final report on the initial survey zone. Unpub. manuscr. for C.I.R.M.F.
- van Lawick-Goodall, J., 1968. The behaviour of free-ranging chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Reserve.Anim. Behav. Monogr., 1: 161–311.
- Chimpanzees of Sapo Forest, Liberia: Density, nests, tools and meat-eating
Volume 24, Issue 4 , pp 594-601
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Psychology, University of Stirling, FK94LA, Stirling, Scotland
- 2. The Chimpanzee Rehabilitation Project, Wildlife Conservation Department, Ministry of Water Resources and Environment, Banjul, The Gambia