, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 309-329

First online:

Maternal and alloparental care in a troop of free-ranging Japanese monkeys

  • Mariko HiraiwaAffiliated withDepartment of Anthropology, Faculty of Science, The University of Tokyo

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


In four years of observation of a free-ranging Japanese monkeys, reproductive rate, physical development of infants, maternal care and alloparental care were studied. Primiparous mothers, orphanned mothers and old mothers showed different types of maternal care from typical multiparous mothers, and the reproductive success of each of these categories of mother also differed. Among nulliparae, 2-year-old females showed the most interest in infants. Adult females were generally indifferent to other females' infants and came to act aggressively toward them with increasing age and maternal experience.