Social organization of savanna-dwelling chimpanzees,Pan troglodytes verus, at Mt. Assirik, Senegal
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
A community of chimpanzees at Mt. Assirik in south-eastern Senegal subsists in a hot, dry and open environment. This wide-ranging, savanna-living group provides an opportunity for comparisons of social organization with other population elsewhere in Africa living in forest and woodland. The group numbered about 28 over the four-year study, and its composition by age and sex was typical. The average size of parties (i.e., temporary sub-groups) did not differ from other populations. However, a high proportion of the group tended to remain together in such parties. The composition of parties resembled that found elsewhere, but some differences emerged between the wet and dry seasons. Larger, mixed parties containing adult males were much more common in open, non-forested habitats than were solitary individuals or parties without adult males. Large parties tended to form for travelling, especially for rapid movement over long distances. Such aspects of social organization seem unlikely to be related to the availability of food in any simple way. Instead, they seem to be adaptations to threat from predators and patchily distributed food, water and nesting sites. This results in occasional bivouacs and mass-migrations from one part of the home-range to another, especially in the dry season.
- Albrecht, H. &S. C. Dunnet, 1971.Chimpanzees in Western Africa. Piper, Munich.
- Alexander, R. D., 1974. The evolution of social behavior.Ann. Rev. Ecol. Systemat., 5: 325–384. CrossRef
- Azuma, S. &A. Toyoshima, 1962. Progress report of the survey of chimpanzees in their natural habitat, Kabogo Point area, Tanganyika.Primates, 3(2): 61–70.
- Baldwin, P. J., 1979. The natural history of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) at Mt. Assirik, Senegal. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Stirling, Stirling.
- ————,W. C. McGrew &C. E. G. Tutin, 1982. Wide-ranging chimpanzees at Mt. Assirik, Senegal.Int. J. Primatol., 3: 367–385.
- ————,J. Sabater Pí, W. C. McGrew &C. E. G. Tutin, 1981. Comparisons of nests made by different populations of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).Primates, 22: 474–486. CrossRef
- Bauer, H. R., 1979. Agonistic and grooming behavior in the reunion context of Gombe Stream chimpanzees. In:The Great Apes,D. A. Hamburg &E. R. McCown (eds.), Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, pp. 395–403.
- Bertram, B. C., 1978. Living in groups: predators and prey. In:Behavioural Ecology,J. R. Krebs &N. Davies (eds.), Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 64–96.
- Bournonville, D. de, 1967. Contribution à l'étude du Chimpanzé en République de Guinée.Bull. Inst. Fond. Afr. Noire, 29A: 1188–1289.
- Bygott, J. D., 1974. Agonistic behaviour and dominance in wild chimpanzees. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge.
- ————, 1979. Agonistic behavior, dominance and social structure in wild chimpanzees of the Gombe National Park. In:The Great Apes,D. A. Hamburg &E. R. McCown (eds.), Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, pp. 405–428.
- Clark, C. B., 1977. A preliminary report on weaning among chimpanzees of the Gombe National Park, Tanzania. In:Primate Bio-social Development,S. Chevallier-Skolnikoff &F. E. Poirier (eds.), Garland, New York, pp. 235–260.
- Clutton-Brock, T. H. &P. H. Harvey, 1977. Primate ecology and social organization.J. Zool., 183: 1–39.
- Ellenberg, M. &S. Mueller-Dombois, 1967. Tentative physiognomic-ecological classification of plant formations of the earth.Ber. Geobot. Inst. Eth, Stitung Rubel, Zurich, 37: 21–55.
- Goodall, J. V. L., 1968. The behaviour of free-ranging chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Reserve.Anim. Behav. Monogr., 1: 161–311.
- ————,A. Bandura, E. Bergmann, C. Busse, H. Matama, E. Mpongo, A. Pierce &D. C. Riss, 1979. Inter-community interactions in the chimpanzee population of the Gombe National Park. In:The Great Apes,D. A. Hamburg &E. R. McCown (eds.), Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, pp. 13–53.
- Itani, J. &A. Suzuki, 1967. The social unit of chimpanzees.Primates, 8: 355–381. CrossRef
- Izawa, K., 1970. Unit groups of chimpanzees and their nomadism in the savanna woodland.Primates, 11: 1–45. CrossRef
- Kano, T., 1972. Distribution and adaptation of the chimpanzee on the Eastern shore of Lake Tanganyika.Kyoto Univ. Afr. Stud., 7: 37–129.
- McGinnis, P. R., 1979. Sexual behavior in free-living chimpanzees: Consort relationships. In:The Great Apes,D. A. Hamburg &E. R. McCown (eds.), Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, pp. 429–439.
- McGrew, W. C., in press. Animal foods in the diets of wild chimpanzees: Why cross-cultural variation?Carnivore.
- ————,P. J. Baldwin &C. E. G. Tutin, 1981. Chimpanzees in a hot, dry and open habitat: Mt. Assirik, Senegal.J. Human Evol., 10: 227–244.
- ———— &C. E. G. Tutin, 1978. Evidence for a social custom in wild chimpanzees?Man, 13: 234–251.
- ————,C. E. G. Tutin &P. J. Baldwin, 1979. Chimpanzees, tools and termites: Cross-cultural comparisons of Senegal, Tanzania and Rio Muni.Man, 14: 185–214.
- Nishida, T., 1968. The social group of wild chimpanzees in the Mahali Mountains.Primates, 9: 167–224. CrossRef
- ————, 1980a. The leaf-clipping display: A newly-discovered expressive gesture in wild chimpanzees.J. Human Evol., 9: 117–128.
- ————, 1980b. Local differences in response to water among wild chimpanzees.Folia Primatol., 33: 189–209.
- ———— &K. Kawanaka, 1972. Inter-unit-group relationships among wild chimpanzees of the Mahali Mountains.Kyoto Univ. Afr. Stud., 7: 131–169.
- Pfeiffer, J. E., 1978.The Emergence of Man. Harper & Row, New York.
- Pusey, A., 1980. Inbreeding avoidance in chimpanzees.Anim. Behav., 28: 543–552.
- ----, in press. Mother-offspring relationships in chimpanzees after weaning.Anim. Behav.
- Reynolds, V. &F. Reynolds, 1965. Chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest. In:Primate Behavior,I. DeVore (ed.), Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, pp. 368–424.
- Sugiyama, Y., 1968. Social organization of chimpanzees in the Budongo Forest, Uganda.Primates, 9: 225–258. CrossRef
- ———— &J. Koman, 1979. Social structure and dynamics of wild chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea.Primates, 20: 323–339.
- Suzuki, A., 1969. An ecological study of chimpanzees in a savanna woodland.Primates, 10: 103–148. CrossRef
- ————, 1971. Carnivority and cannibalism observed among forest-living chimpanzees.J. Anthropol. Soc. Nippon, 79: 30–48.
- Teleki, G., 1973.The Predatory Behavior of Wild Chimpanzees. Bucknell Univ. Press, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania.
- ————, 1977. Spatial and temporal dimensions of routine activities performed by chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania: An ethological study of adaptive strategy. Ph.D. thesis, Pennsylvania State Univ., University Pask.
- ————,E. E. Hunt &J. H. Pfifferling, 1976. Demographic observations (1963–1973) on the chimpanzees of Gombe National Park, Tanzania.J. Human Evol., 5: 559–598.
- Tutin, C. E. G., 1975. Mating patterns in a community of wild chimpanzees. Ph. D. thesis, Univ. of Edinburgh, Edinburgh.
- ————, 1979. Mating patterns and reproductive strategies in a community of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).Behav. Ecol. & Sociobiol., 6: 29–38.
- ————, 1980. Reproductive behaviour of wild chimpanzees in the Gombe National Park, Tanzania.J. Reprod. Fertil., Suppl., 28: 43–57.
- ————,W. C. McGrew &P. J. Baldwin, 1982. Responses of wild chimpanzees to potential predators. In:Primate Behavior and Sociobiology,B. Chiarelli &R. Corruccini (eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 136–141.
- Wrangham, R. W., 1974. Artificial feeding of chimpanzees and baboons in their natural habitat.Anim. Behav., 22: 83–93.
- ————, 1975. Behavioural ecology of chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge.
- ————, 1977. Feeding behaviour of chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. In:Primate Ecology,T. H. Clutton-Brock (ed.), Academic Press, London, pp. 504–538.
- ————, 1979a. Sex differences in chimpanzee dispersion. In:The Great Apes,D. A. Hamburg &E. R. McCown (eds.), Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, pp. 481–490.
- ————, 1979b. On the evolution of ape social systems.Soc. Sci. Inform., 18: 335–368.
- Social organization of savanna-dwelling chimpanzees,Pan troglodytes verus, at Mt. Assirik, Senegal
Volume 24, Issue 2 , pp 154-173
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links