A field study on wild pig-tailed macaques was conducted in West Sumatra, Indonesia, during three periods from January 1985 to February 1987. During the nine months of the first two periods, unprovisioned monkeys were traced and observed. During the eight months of the last period, monkeys were provisioned and observed mainly at baiting sites. Three troops and ten solitary males appeared at the two baiting sites. Some males immigrated into and emigrated from the troops. The troops had a multi-male multi-female composition. The size of the various troops was 74, 49, and 81 individuals, respectively, and the mean adult sex ratio in the troops was 1:6.3; that is, markedly biased towards females. The home ranges of two of the troops overlapped considerably. When the troops encountered each other at the baiting sites, a clear dominance relationship was recognized. The troops differed in their integration as ranging units: two of the troops did not form subgroups (temporary fission and fusion of each troop), while the other troop frequently split into subgroups. Recent field studies on pig-tailed macaques have suggested a multi-leveled society with harem-type unit groups. However, in the present study, the troops observed had neither a substructure similar to harem-type groups nor a superstructure that emerged as a result of fusion of the troops. The unit group of the pig-tailed macaques appears to be a multi-male, matrilineal group.
Macaca nemestrina nemestrinaSex ratio Subgrouping Troop encounter Intraspecies variation