, Volume 36, Issue 10, pp 1071-1078

The course of kidney function in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

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We evaluated the impact of some putative progression promoters on kidney function in albuminuric Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with biopsyproven diabetic glomerulosclerosis. Twenty-six patients (1 female) with a mean age of 52 (standard error 2) years and a known mean duration of diabetes of 9 (1) years were followed-up prospectively for a mean of 5.2 (range 1.0–7.0) years. Twenty-one patients received antihypertensive treatment. During the observation period the glomerular filtration rate decreased from 83 (24–146) to 58 (2–145) ml·min−1·1.73 m−2 (mean (range)) (p<0.001). The mean rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate was 5.7 (−3.5 to 22.0) ml/min per year. Albuminuria increased from 1.2 (0.3–7.2) to 2.3 (0.4–8.0) g/24 h (geometric mean (range)) (p<0.001). Arterial blood pressure remained unchanged: 162/93 (SE 4/3) and 161/89 (4/2) mm Hg. Univariate analysis showed the rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate to correlate with systolic blood pressure (r=0.71,p<0.001), mean blood pressure (r=0.56,p<0.005), albuminuria (r=0.58,p<0.005) and the initial glomerular filtration rate (r=−0.49,p<0.02). The rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate did not correlate significantly with dietary protein intake, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or HbA1c. Three patients died from uraemia and four patients died from cardiovascular disease. Two patients required renal replacement therapy at the end of the observation period. Our prospective observational study revealed that one-fifth of the patients developed end-stage renal failure during the 5-year observation period. The decline in glomerular filtration rate varied considerably between patients. Increase in arterial blood pressure to a hypertensive level is an early feature of diabetic nephropathy. Elevated systolic blood pressure accelerates the progression of diabetic nephropathy in Type 2 diabetic patients.