, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 483-492

Field ecology and behaviour of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta): I. Group composition, home range, roosting sites, and foraging routes in the Asarori Forest

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Abstract

The data presented here resulted from about 1,100 observation hours in a nine-month field study of rhesus monkey from January to October 1976 in the Asarori Forest, Dheradun. Six groups were studied, the group size varied from 6–90 individuals. With the exception of one group, all were of the bisexual multimale type. The number of adult males per group varied from two to seven, and of adult females from 4 to 27. The adult sex ratio was male 1 to females 2.2–3.7 (mean 1:2.7). The exceptional group originally consisted of five juveniles only (3 ♂, 2 ♀); later on an adult male joined the group. Home ranges varied from 1.3–13.4 km2 and overlapped extensively with another. The area of home range showed straight line relationship with group size. Roosting sites were not fixed but changed from night to night. The straight line distance between one night to the next varied from 75–2,500 m. Foraging routes per day ranged from 1,050–3,500 m (mean 1,803.3±160.2). There is a significant relationship between the foraging route (L) and the straight line distance between roosting sites (D). The ratio D/L varies from 0.14–0.87.