, Volume 100, Issue 1-3, pp 71-97

Nitrogen budgets in flooded soils used for rice production

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The flooded soil-rice plant ecosystem is extremely complex and final N budgets are the products of many N transformations modified by physical, chemical and biological agents, to a large extent controlled by O2 fluxes, but interacting with each other over time. Topics reviewed include mineralization-immobilization, nitrification-denitrification, NH 4 + fixation, NH3 volatilization, leaching and run-off lossess. Nitrogen budgets constructed for water sown rice using temperate climate data clearly show that the major mechanisms by which fertilizer N is removed is crop absorption, nitrification-dentrification and NH3 volatilization. Proper fertilizer management can reduce losses and desirably increase fertilizer use efficiency. Nitrogen budgets have proven useful in describing gains and losses from the various N transformation processes, all of which are environment and management dependent.