Plant and Soil

, Volume 100, Issue 1, pp 71–97

Nitrogen budgets in flooded soils used for rice production

  • D. S. Mikkelsen

DOI: 10.1007/BF02370933

Cite this article as:
Mikkelsen, D.S. Plant Soil (1987) 100: 71. doi:10.1007/BF02370933


The flooded soil-rice plant ecosystem is extremely complex and final N budgets are the products of many N transformations modified by physical, chemical and biological agents, to a large extent controlled by O2 fluxes, but interacting with each other over time. Topics reviewed include mineralization-immobilization, nitrification-denitrification, NH4+ fixation, NH3 volatilization, leaching and run-off lossess. Nitrogen budgets constructed for water sown rice using temperate climate data clearly show that the major mechanisms by which fertilizer N is removed is crop absorption, nitrification-dentrification and NH3 volatilization. Proper fertilizer management can reduce losses and desirably increase fertilizer use efficiency. Nitrogen budgets have proven useful in describing gains and losses from the various N transformation processes, all of which are environment and management dependent.

Key words

Ammonium fixationAmmonia volatilizationDentrificationImmobilizationRun off lossesN use efficiencyRice

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. S. Mikkelsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Agronomy and Range ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA