Nitrogen budgets in flooded soils used for rice production Article DOI:
Cite this article as: Mikkelsen, D.S. Plant Soil (1987) 100: 71. doi:10.1007/BF02370933 Summary
The flooded soil-rice plant ecosystem is extremely complex and final N budgets are the products of many N transformations modified by physical, chemical and biological agents, to a large extent controlled by O
2 fluxes, but interacting with each other over time. Topics reviewed include mineralization-immobilization, nitrification-denitrification, NH fixation, NH 4 + 3 volatilization, leaching and run-off lossess. Nitrogen budgets constructed for water sown rice using temperate climate data clearly show that the major mechanisms by which fertilizer N is removed is crop absorption, nitrification-dentrification and NH 3 volatilization. Proper fertilizer management can reduce losses and desirably increase fertilizer use efficiency. Nitrogen budgets have proven useful in describing gains and losses from the various N transformation processes, all of which are environment and management dependent. Key words Ammonium fixation Ammonia volatilization Dentrification Immobilization Run off losses N use efficiency Rice References
Bajwa M I 1982 Soil-clay mineralogies in relation to fertility management. Effect of clay mineral types on ammonium fixation under wetland rice culture. Agron. J. 74, 143–144.
Bouldin D R and Alimagno B V 1976 NH
3 volatilization from IRRI paddies following applications of fertilizer nitrogen. Unpublished report. 51 p. IRRI.
Bremner J M and Hauck R D 1982 Advances in methodology for research on nitrogen transformations in soils.
In Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils Agron. No. 22, pp. 467–502. American Society of Agronomy.
Broadbent F E 1953 The soil organic fraction.
. Adv. Agron. 5, 153–183. Academic Press New York.
Broadbent F E 1979 Mineralization of organic nitrogen in paddy soils.
Nitrogen and Rice. pp 105–118. Int. Rice Res. Inst. Los Banos, Philippines.
Broadbent F E and Mikkelsen D S 1968 Influence of placement on uptake of tagged nitrogen by rice. Agron. J. 60, 674–677.
Broadbent F E and Nakashima T 1970 Nitrogen immobilization in flooded soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 34, 218–221.
Chou C H, Chiang Y C, Cheng H H and Farrow F D 1982 Transformations of
N-enriched fertilizer nitrogen during rice straw decomposition in submerged soil. Bot. Bull. Acad. Sinica 23(2), 119–133.
DeDatta S K 1978 Fertilizer management for efficient use in wetland rice soils.
Soils and Rice. pp. 671–701. Int. Rice Res. Inst. Los Banos, Philippines.
DeDatta S K and Patrick W H Jr. (Ed) 1986 Nitrogen Economy of Flooded Rice Soils Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences. Martinus Nyhoff Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Delaune R D and Patrick W H Jr. 1970 Urea conversion to ammonia in waterlogged soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 34, 603–607.
Fillery I R P and DeDatta S K 1986 Ammonia volatilization from nitrogen sources applied to rice fields. I. Methodology, ammonia fluxes and nitrogen 15 loss. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 50, 80–85.
Fillery I R P, Simpson J R and DeDatta S K 1984 Influence of field environment and fertilizer management on ammonia loss from flooded rice. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48, 914–920.
Foster E F and Stuttle C A 1986 Glutamine synthetase activity and foliar nitrogen volatilization in response to temperature and inhibitor chemicals. Annals Bot. 57, 305–308.
Freney J R, Denmead O T, Watanabe I and Craswell E T 1981 Ammonia and nitrous oxide losses following applications of ammonium sulfate to flooded rice. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 32, 37–45.
CrossRef Google Scholar
Gardner W R 1965 Movement of nitrogen in soil.
In Soil Nitrogen. Agron Mono 10, 550–572. American Society of Agronomy.
Gupta S P 1955 Loss of nitrogen in the form of ammonia from waterlogged paddy soil. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 3, 29–32.
Hauck R D 1981 Nitrogen fertilizer effects on nitrogen cycle.
In Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycles Ecol bull (Stockholm), 33, 551–562.
Hauck R D and Bremner J M 1976 Use of tracers for soil nitrogen research.
Adv. Agron. 28, 219–266. Academic Press New York.
Ito O and Watanabe I 1981 Immobilization, mineralization and availability to rice plants of nitrogen derived from heterotropic nitrogen fixation in flooded soil. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 27, 169–176.
Jansson S L and Persson J 1982 Mineralization and immobilization of soil nitrogen.
In Nitrogen and Agricultural Soils. Agron Mono 22, 229–252. American Society of Agronomy.
Keerthisinghe G, Mengel K and DeDatta S K 1984 The release of nonexchangeable ammonium (
N labeled) in wetland rice soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48 291–294.
Koyama T and App A 1979 Nitrogen balance in flooded soils.
Nitrogen and Rice. pp 95–104. Int. Rice Res. Inst. Los Banos. Philippines.
Lamm C G and Nafady M H 1973 Plant nutrient availability in soils. III. Studies on potassium in Danish soils. Agrochimica 17, 435–444.
Legg J O and Meisinger J J 1982 Soil nitrogen budgets.
In Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils. Agron No. 22, 503–566. American Society of Agronomy.
MacRae I C and Ancajas R 1970 Volatilization of ammonia from submerged tropical soils. Plant and Soil 33, 97–103.
CrossRef Google Scholar
Mikkelsen D S and DeDatta S K 1979 Ammonia volatilization from wetland rice soils.
Nitrogen and Rice. pp 135–156. Int. Rice Res. Inst., Los Banos, Philippines.
Mikkelsen D S, DeDatta S K and Obcemea W N 1978 Ammonia volatilization losses from flooded rice soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 42, 725–730.
Mikkelsen D S and Finfrock D C 1957 Availability of ammoniacal nitrogen to lowland rice as influenced by fertilizer placement. Agron. J. 49, 296–300.
Mitsui S 1954 Inorganic nutrition, Fertilization and Soil Amelioration for Lowland Rice. Yokendo Ltd. Tokyo 107 p.
Moore P A, Gilmour C M and Wells B R 1981 Seasonal patterns of growth and soil nitrogen uptake by rice. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 45, 875–879.
Murayama N 1979 The importance of nitrogen for rice production.
Nitrogen and Rice, pp. 5–23. Int. Rice Res. Inst. Los Banos, Philippines.
Nommik H and Vahtras K 1982 Retention and fixation of ammonium and ammonia in soils.
In Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils. Agron No. 22, 123–171. American Society of Agronomy.
Obcemea W N, Mikkelsen D S and DeDatta S K 1977 Factors affecting ammonia volatilization losses from the flooded environment of rice. IRRI Saturday Seminar Mimeo. 45 p. Los Banos, Philippines.
Okuda, Takahasi E and Yoshida M 1960 On the volatilization of the ammonia transferred from urea applied under upland and waterlogged conditions. J. Sci. Soil Manure Japan, 31, 273–278.
Olson R A and Kurtz L T 1982 Crop nitrogen requirements, utilization and fertilization.
In Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils. Agron Mono 22, pp 567–604. American Society of Agronomy.
Patrick W H Jr. 1982 Nitrogen transformations in submerged soils
In Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils. Agron Mono 22, pp 449–465. American Soceity of Agronomy.
Patrick W H Jr. and Mahapatra I C 1968 Transformations and availability to rice of nitrogen and phosphorus in waterlogged soils.
Adv. Agron. 20, 323–359. Academic Press. New York.
Patrick W H Jr., Mikkelsen D S and Wells B R 1985 Plant nutrient behavior in flooded soil.
In Fertilizer Technology and Use. 3rd Ed., pp 197–228. American Society of Agronomy.
Ponnamperuma F N 1972 The chemistry of submerged soils.
Adv. Agron. 24, 29–96. Academic Press New York.
Ponnamperuma F N 1977 Physiological properties of submerged soils in relation to fertility. Int. Rice Res. Inst. Paper Ser 5, 1–32.
Reddy K R 1982 Nitrogen cycling in a flooded-soil ecosystem planted to rice (
). Plant and Soil 67, 209–220.
Reddy K R and Patrick W H Jr. 1976 Yield and nitrogen utilization by rice as affected by method and time of application of labeled nitrogen. Agron. J. 68, 965–969.
Reddy K R and Patrick W H Jr. 1980 Uptake of fertilizer nitrogen and soil nitrogen by rice using
N-labeled nitrogen fertilizer. Plant and Soil 57, 375–381.
CrossRef Google Scholar
Reddy K R and Patrick W H Jr. 1986 Fate of fertilizer nitrogen in the rice root zone. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 50, 649–651.
Sah R N and Mikkelsen D S 1983 Availability and utilization of fertilizer nitrogen by rice under alternate flooding. I. Kinetics of available nitrogen under rice culture. II. Effect on growth and nitrogen use efficiency. Plant and Soil 75, 221–234.
Savant N K and DeDatta S K 1982 Nitrogen transformations in wetland rice soils.
Adv. Agron. 35, 241–302. Academic Press New York.
Stevenson F J (Ed.) 1982 Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils. Agron No. 22, 1–940. American Society of Agronomy.
Stumpe J M, Vlek P L G and Lindsay 1984 Ammonia volatilization from urea and urea phosphates in calcareous soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 48, 921–926.
Tanaka A and Navasero S A 1964 Loss of nitrogen from the rice plant through rain or dew. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 10, 36–39.
Tusneem M E and Patrick W H Jr. 1971 Nitrogen transformations in waterlogged soils. LSU Bull 657, 1–75.
Ventura W B and Yoshida T 1977 Ammonia volatilization from a flooded tropical soil. Plant and Soil 46, 521–531.
CrossRef Google Scholar
Vlek P L G and Craswell E T 1979 Effect of N source and management of ammonia volatilization losses from flooded rice-soil systems. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 43, 352–358.
Wetselaar R and Farquhar G D 1980 Nitrogen losses from tops of plants. Adv. Agron. 33, 263–302 Academic Press New York.
Wetselaar R T, Shaw P, Firth P. Oupathum J and Thitepoca H 1977 Ammonia volatilization losses from variously placed ammonium sulfate under lowland rice field conditions in Central Thailand. pp. 282–288. Proc. Int. Sem. Soil Env. Fert. Magmt. Tokyo.
Young J L and Aldag R W 1982 Inorganic forms of nitrogen in soils.
In Nitrogen in Agricultural Soils. Agron No. 22, 43–66. American Society of Agronomy.
Yoshida S 1981 Mineral nutrition of rice. Int Rice. Res. Inst. pp 1–169. Los Banos, Philippines.
© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 1987