Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 395–410

Biocompatibility considerations at stimulating electrode interfaces

  • R. B. Beard
  • B. N. Hung
  • Robert Schmukler

DOI: 10.1007/BF02368539

Cite this article as:
Beard, R.B., Hung, B.N. & Schmukler, R. Ann Biomed Eng (1992) 20: 395. doi:10.1007/BF02368539


The choice of biocompatible stimulating electrodes for various biomedical applications varies with the type of electrode-tissue interface, biomolecules present, electrolyte background, preparation of electrode, interfacial potential, current density, electrode material, porosity, geometry, and inflammatory response. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the importance of these parameters. Topics discussed are: A) DC electrodes applied to partially keratinized epithelial membranes; B) Variation of the electrical impedance and biocompatibility of stimulating electrodes with electrode potential and surrounding pH; C) Influence of electrode geometry, porosity and pore size on biocompatibility; D) Body defense mechanisms at the sites of implantable stimulating electrodes; E) Thrombus formation at stimulating electrode interfaces and F) Sterilization of electrodes to ensure biocompatibility.


Biocompatibility Stimulating electrodes Inflammation pH and electrode potential 

Copyright information

© Pergamon Press Ltd. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. B. Beard
    • 1
  • B. N. Hung
    • 2
  • Robert Schmukler
    • 3
  1. 1.Biomedical Engineering and Science InstituteDrexel UniversityPhiladelphia
  2. 2.Chung Yuan UniversityTaiwan, Republic of China
  3. 3.Center for Devices and Radiological HealthFood and Drug AdministrationRockville

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