Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 413–422

A method for pneumatically inserting an array of penetrating electrodes into cortical tissue

  • Patrick J. Rousche
  • Richard A. Normann

DOI: 10.1007/BF02368133

Cite this article as:
Rousche, P.J. & Normann, R.A. Ann Biomed Eng (1992) 20: 413. doi:10.1007/BF02368133


The goal of this research was to find a practical means by which an array of 100 needle-shaped electrodes could be implanted into the cerebral cortex with minimal brain tissue trauma. It was found that insertion of these structures into cortical tissues could only be performed using high insertion speeds. A pneumatically actuated impact insertion system has been developed that is capable of inserting an electrode array into feline brain tissue at speeds from about 1 to 11 m/s. We found that a minimum array insertion speed of 8.3 m/s was necessary for a complete, safe insertion of all 100 electrodes in the array to a depth of 1.5 mm into feline cortex. The performance of the impact insertion system is discussed in terms of a simplified representation of cortical tissue.


Penetrating electrode arrayImpact insertionCortical neurophysiologyNeuroprosthetics

Copyright information

© Pergamon Press Ltd. 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick J. Rousche
    • 1
  • Richard A. Normann
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BioengineeringUniversity of UtahSalt Lake City