, Volume 24, Issue 5, pp 509-519

N-acetyltransferases: Pharmacogenetics and clinical consequences of polymorphic drug metabolism

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Abstract

Since the discovery of polymorphicN-acetylation of drugs nearly 40 years ago, great progress has been made in understanding the molecular genetics of acetylation as well as the clinical consequences of being a rapid or slow acetylator. Inborn errors (several different alleles) at the NAT2 locus are responsible for the traditional acetylator polymorphism. Studies have revealed variant alleles at the NAT1 locus as well. The consequences of pharmacogenetic variation in these enzymes include (i) altered kinetics of specific drug substrates; (ii) drug-drug interactions resulting from altered kinetics; (iii) idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. The latter have been extensively investigated for the arylamine-containing sulfonamide antimicrobial drugs. Individual differences in multiple metabolic pathways can increase the likelihood of covalent binding of reactive metabolites of the drugs to cell macromolecules with resultant cytotoxicity and immune response to neoantigens. This can result clinically in an idiosyncratic hypersensitivity reaction, manifested by fever, skin rash, and variable toxicity to organs including liver, bone marrow, kidney, lung, heart, and thyroid. Slow acetylation by NAT2 is a risk factor for such reactions to sulfonamides. Given the incidence of these severe adverse drug reactions (much less than 1/1000), slow acetylation cannot be the sole mechanism of predisposition in the population. Differences in rates of production of hydroxylamine metabolites of the drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP2C9), myeloperoxidase, and thyroid, roxidase, along with an inherited abnormality in detoxification of the hydroxylamines are critically important in determining individual differences in adverse reaction risk. Both NATs, particularly NAT1, also can further metabolize hydroxylamine metabolites toN-acetoxy derivatives. Intensive investigation of patients with these rare adverse reactions using a variety of tools fromin vitro cell toxicity assays through molecular genetic analysis will help elucidate mechanisms of predisposition and ultimately lead to diagnostic tools to characterize individual risk and prevent idiosyncratic drug toxicity.