Accurate measurement of threedimensional deformations in deformable and rigid bodies using computer vision
 P. F. Luo,
 Y. J. Chao,
 M. A. Sutton,
 W. H. Peters III
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Recently, digitalimagecorrelation techniques have been used to accurately determine twodimensional inplane displacements and strains. An extension of the twodimensional method to the acquisition of accurate, threedimensional surfacedisplacement data from a stereo pair of CCD cameras is presented in this paper.
A pinhole camera model is used to express the transformation relating threedimensional world coordinates to twodimensional computerimage coordinates by the use of camera extrinsic and intrinsic parameters. Accurate camera model parameters are obtained for each camera independently by (a) using several points which have threedimensional world coordinates that are accurate within 0.001 mm and (b) using twodimensional imagecorrelation methods that are accurate to within 0.05 pixels to obtain the computerimage coordinates of various object positions. A nonlinear, leastsquares method is used to select the optimal camera parameters such that the deviations between the measured and estimated image positions are minimized.
Using multiple orientations of the cameras, the accuracy of the methodology is tested by performing translation tests. Using theoretical error estimates, error analyses are presented. To verify the methodology for actual tests both the displacement field for a cantilever beam and also the surface, threedimensional displacement and strain fields for a 304L stainlesssteel compacttension specimen were experimentally obtained using stereo vision. Results indicate that the threedimensional measurement methodology, when combined with twodimensional digital correlation for subpixel accuracy, is a viable tool for the accurate measurement of surface displacements and strains.
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 Title
 Accurate measurement of threedimensional deformations in deformable and rigid bodies using computer vision
 Journal

Experimental Mechanics
Volume 33, Issue 2 , pp 123132
 Cover Date
 19930601
 DOI
 10.1007/BF02322488
 Print ISSN
 00144851
 Online ISSN
 17412765
 Publisher
 Kluwer Academic Publishers
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 Authors

 P. F. Luo ^{(1)}
 Y. J. Chao ^{(1)}
 M. A. Sutton ^{(1)}
 W. H. Peters III ^{(1)}
 Author Affiliations

 1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of South Carolina, 29208, Columbia, SC, USA