Consensus statement on the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy
- Cite this article as:
- Gilman, S., Low, P., Quinn, N. et al. Clinical Autonomic Research (1998) 8: 359. doi:10.1007/BF02309628
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We report the results of a consensus conference on the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA). We describe the clinical features of the disease, which include four domains: autonomic failure/urinary dysfunction, parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and corticospinal dysfunction. We set criteria to define the relative importance of these features. The diagnosis of possible MSA requires one criterion plus two features from separate domains. The diagnosis of probable MSA requires the criterion for autonomic failure/urinary dysfunction plus poor levodopa responsive parkinsonism or cerebellar ataxia. The diagnosis of definite MSA requires pathological confirmation.