John R. Aldrich, “A Downsian Spatial Model with Party Activism,”American Political Science Review, 77, 1983a, pp. 974–90.
_____, “A Spatial Model with Party Activists: Implications for Electoral Dynamics,”Public Choice
, 41, 1983b, pp. 63–100.CrossRef
Henry W. Chappell and William R. Keech, “Policy Motivation and Party Differences in a Dynamic Spatial Model of Party Competition,”American Political Science Review, 80, 1986, pp. 881–99.
Aage R. Clausen,How Congressmen Decide: A Policy Focus, New York: St. Martins Press, 1973.
_____ and Carl E. Van Horn, “The Congressional Response to a Decade of Change: 1963–1972,”Journal of Politics, August 1977.
John L. Dobra and William Lee Eubank, “Political Survivorship: An Interest Group Perspective,”Southern Economic Journal, April 1985.
Anthony Downs,An Economic Theory of Democracy, New York: Harper and Row, 1957.
Alan Ehrenhalt, ed.,Politics in America, Members of Congress in Washington and at Home, Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press, 1980, 1982, 1984.
James M. Enlow and Melvin J. Hinich,The Spatial Theory of Voting: An Introduction, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
Federal Election Commission,Report on Financial Activity, the Senate and House Election Cycle, 1979–80, 1981–82 (Washington, D.C.).
Melvin J. Hinich and Peter C. Ordeshook, “Plurality Maximizationvs. Vote Maximization: A Spatial Analysis with Variable Participation,”American Political Science Review, September 1970, pp. 772–92.
Gary C. Jacobson,Money in Congressional Elections, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980.
_____, “Party Organization and Distribution of Campaign Resources: Republicans and Democrats in 1982,”Political Science Quarterly, Winter 1985–86, pp. 603–25.
G. S. Maddala,Econometrics, New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1977.
Michael J. Malbin,Money and Politics in the United States, ed. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers, 1984, pp. 292–94.
_____ and Thomas W. Skaldony, “Appendix: Selected Campaign Finance Data, 1974–82,” in Michael Malbin, (ed.)Money and Politics in the United States, Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers, 1984.
Keith T. Poole and R. Steven Daniels, “Ideology, Party, and Voting in the U.S. Congress, 1959–1980,”American Political Science Review, 79, No. 2, June 1985, pp. 373–99.
James A. Schlesinger, “The Primary Goals of Political Parties: A Clarification of Positive Theory,”The American Political Science Review, 69, No. 3, September 1975, pp. 840–49.
William R. Shaffer, “Party and Ideology in the House of Representatives,”Western Political Quarterly, March 1982.
Kenneth A. Shepsle, “The Strategy of Ambiguity: Uncertainty and Electoral Competition,”The American Political Science Review, June 1972.
Julius Turner and Edward V. Schneier, Jr.,Party and Constituency: Pressure on Congress, Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press, 1970.
Donald Wittman, “Parties as Utility Maximizers,”American Political Science Review, 67, 1973, pp. 490–98.