American Society for Training and Development (ASTD). (1983).Models for Excellence: The conclusions and recommendations of the ASTD training and development competency study. Alexandria, VA: Author.
Beaudoin, M. (1990). The instructor's changing role in distance education.The American Journal of Distance Education 4(2), 21–29.
Bernard, R.M., & Naidu, S. (1992). Post-questioning, concept mapping and feedback: A distance education field experiment.British Journal of Educational Technology, 23(1), 48–60.
Bines, H. (1992). Issues in course design. In H. Bines & D. Watson (Eds.),Developing professional education.Bristol, PA:SRHE and Open University Press.
Bines, H., & Watson, D. (Eds.). (1992).Developing professional education.Bristol, PA:SRHE and Open University Press.
Brinkley, R., Pavlechko, G., & Thompson, N. (1991). Designing and producing courseware for distance learning instruction in higher education.Tech Trends, 36(1), 50–54.
Catchpole, J.J. (1992). Classroom, open, and distance teaching.The American Journal of Distance Education, 6(3), 34–44.
Catchpole, J.J. (1993). Interactive media: The bridge between distance education and classroom education. In T. Nunan (Ed.),Distance education futures. Australia: University of South Australia.
Collins, V.A.C., & Murphy, P.J. (1987). A new adult student: Learning by interactive satellite.Continuous Higher Education Review, 51(2), 29–37.
Dillon, C.L. (1989). Faculty rewards and instructional telecommunications: A view from the telecourse faculty.The American Journal of Distance Education, 3(2), 35–43.
Dillon, C.L., Gunawardena, C.N., & Parker, R. (1993). Learner support in distance education: An evaluation of a state-wide telecommunications system.International Journal of Instructional Media, 19(4), 297–307.
Dillon, C.L., Hengst, H.R., & Zoller, D. (1991). Instructional strategies and student involvement in distance education: A study of the Oklahoma televised instruction system.Journal of Distance Education, 6(1), 28–41.
Dillon, C.L., & Walsh, S.M. (1992). Faculty: The neglected resource in distance education.The American Journal of Distance Education, 6(3), 5–21.
Dixon, N.M., & Henkleman, J. (1991).Models for HRD practice: The academic guide. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development.
Dunnet, C. (1990). Open access—open media.Educational Media International, 27(4), 199–207.
Egan, M.W., Jones, D.E., Ferraris, C., & Sebastian, J. (1993a).The telecourse experience: A student perspective. Salt Lake City, UT: Utah Education Network.
Egan, M.W., Sebastian, J., Welch, M., Page, B., Nkabinde, Z., & Jones, D.E. (1993b).Quality television instruction: Perceptions of instructors and administrators. Salt Lake City, UT: Utah Education Network.
Elliot, S. (1990).Distance education systems. Rome, Italy: Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Galliani, L. (1992). People and technology in the Eastern European countries.Educational Media International, 29(3) 149–152.
Garrison, D.R. (1989).Understanding distance education: A framework for the future. New York: Routledge.
Garrison, D.R., & Shale, D. (Eds.). (1990).Education at a distance: From issues to practice. Malabar, FL: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Co.
Gehlauf, D.N., Shatz, M.A., & Frye, T.W. (1991). Faculty perceptions of interactive television instructional strategies: Implications for training.The American Journal of Distance Education, 5(3), 20–28.
Gunawardena, C.J. (1991). Current trends in the use of communications technologies for delivering distance education.International Journal of Instructional Media, 18(3), 201–213.
Gunawardena, C.J. (1992). Changing faculty roles for audiographics and online teaching.The American Journal of Distance Education, 6(3), 58–69.
Hackman, M.Z., & Walker, K.B. (1990). Instructional communication in the televised classroom: The effects of system design and teacher immediacy on student learning and satisfaction.Communication Education, 39(3), 196–206.
Harris, D. (1987). Openness and closure in distance education. London: The Falmer Press. In D.R. Garrison & D. Shale (Eds.),Education at a distance: From issues to practice. Malabar, FL: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Co.
Harry, K. (1992). Distance education today and tomorrow: A personal perspective.Educational Media International, 29(3), 189–192.
Hedberg, J.G., & McNamara, S.E. (1989). The human-technology interface: Designing for open and distance learning.Educational Media International, 26(2), 73–81.
Helmer, O. (1966).The use of Delphi technique in problems of education innovation. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.
Holmberg, B. (1989).Theory and practice of distance education. NY: Routledge.
Holmberg, R.G., & Bakshi, T.S. (1992). Postmortem on a distance education course: Successes and failures.The American Journal of Distance Education, 6(1), 27–39.
Holt, J.E., & Lopos, G.J. (Eds.). (1991).Perspectives on educational certificate programs. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Jones, C.S., & Timpson, W.M. (1991). Technologically mediated staff development: A retrospective case study.The American Journal of Distance Education, 5(1), 51–56.
Joyce, B. (1974). Listening to different drummers: Evaluating alternative instructional models. InCompetency, Assessment, Research and Evaluation. Houston, TX: University of Houston—A Report of a National Conference.
Kember, D., Lai, T., Murphy, D., Siaw, I., & Yuen, K.S. (1992). A synthesis of evaluations of distance education courses.British Journal of Educational Technology, 23(2), 122–135.
King, J.W., & Cornell, R.A. (1992). Tools for managing design and development of a twenty-first century technology base.Educational Media International, 29(3), 153–161.
Kitchen, K., & Kitchen, W. (1988).Two-way interactive television for distance learning: A primer. Alexandria, VA: ITTE Technology Leadership Network.
Knott, T.D. (1992). Determining societal needs for distance education in tomorrow's global village.Educational Media International, 29(3), 162–164.
Knowles, J.S. (1962). A general theory of the doctorate in education.Adult Education Quarterly, 12(3).
Lindeman, E. (1938). Preparing leaders in adult education. In N.M. Dixon & J. Henkelman (Eds.). (1941).Models for HRD practice: The academic guide. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development.
Linstone, H.A., & Turoff, M. (1975).The Delphi method: Techniques and applications. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Mager, R. (1988).Making instruction work or skillbloomers. Belmont, CA: Lake Books.
McLagen, P. (1983).Models for excellence. Washington, DC: American Society for Training and Development.
McLagen, P., & Suhadolnik, D. (1989).Models for HRD practice: The research report. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development.
Milheim, W.D. (1991). Implementing distance education programs: Suggestions for potential developers.Educational Technology, 31(4), 51–53.
Moller, L. (1991). Planning programs for distant learners using the Assure Model.Tech Trends, 36(1), 55–57.
Moore, M.G. (1993). Is teaching like flying? A total systems view of distance education.The American Journal of Distance Education, 7(1), 1–10.
Nelson, P.A. (1988). Making distance education more effective.The International Council of Distance Education Bulletin, 18, 18–22.
Paul, R.H. (1990).Open learning and open management: Leadership and integrity in distance education. NY: Nickhols GP Publishing.
Pill, J. (1971). The Delphi method: Substance, context, a critique and an annotated bibliography.Socio-economic Planning Science, 57–71.
Pinto, P.R., & Walker, J.W. (1978).A study of professional training and development roles and competencies. Madison, WI: American Society for Training and Development.
Sackman, H. (1975).Delphi critique: Expert opinion, forecasting, and group processes. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Sage, H. (1992). Are we ready enough to learn from interactive multimedia?Educational Media International, 29(3), 181–188.
Sparkes, J.J. (1982). On choosing teaching methods to match educational aims.ZIFF Papiere, 39. Hagen: Fern-Universitaet, ZIFF.
Spikes, W.F. (1990).Training in the twenty-first century: Where do we go from here? Paper presented at the meeting of the American Association of Adult and Continuing Education, Salt Lake City, UT.
Spillane, S.A. (1993).A case study of first time use of the trans Texas video network by faculty at Texas A&M University. Unpublished dissertatin, Texas A&M University, Department of educational Human Resource Development, College Station.
Strain, J. (1987). The role of the faculty member in distance education.The American Journal of Distance Education, 1(2), 61–66.
Talab, R., & Bailey, G. (1991). Copyright, licensing and contractual issues in distance education course delivery.Tech Trends 36(1), 63–65.
Thach, E.C. (1994).Perceptions of distance education experts regarding the roles, outputs, and competencies needed in the field of distance education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University, Department of Educational Human Resource Development, College Station.
Thorpe, M. (1988).Evaluating open and distance learning. Essex, England: Longman Group UK Limited.
Verduin, J.R., Jr., & Clark, T.A. (1991).Distance education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, Inc.
Wagner, N., & Craft, E.J. (1988). Instructional television fixed service in Arizona.The American Journal of Distance Education, 2(1), 76–80.
Wedman, J., & Tessmer, M. (1993). Instructional designers' decisions and priorities: A survey of design practice.Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(2), 43–57.
Willis, B. (1991). Improving the success of faculty development in distance education.Teletraining, 5(1), 5–7.
Willis, B. (1992).Effective distance education: A primer for faculty and administrators. Alaska: University of Alaska.
Winn, B. (1989). Media and instructional methods. In D.R. Garrison & D. Shale (Eds.). (1990).Education at a distance: From issues to practice. Malabar, FL: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Co.
Wolcott, L. (1993). Faculty planning for distance teaching.The American Journal of Distance Education, 7(1), 26–36.
Yi, J., & Majima, J. (1993). The teacher-learner relationship and classroom interaction in distance learning: A case study of the Japanese language classes at an American high school.Foreign Language Annals, 26(1), 21–30.