Alwin, D. F., & Hauser, R. M. (1975). The decomposition of effects in path analysis.American Sociological Review, 40, 37–47.
Bentler, P. M., & Freeman, E. H. (1983). Tests for stability in linear structural equation systems.Psychometrika, 48, 143–145.
Bollen, K. A., (1987). Total, direct and indirect effects in structural equation models. In C. C. Clogg (Ed.),Sociological methodology, 1987 (pp. 37–69). Washinton, D. C.: American Sociological Association.
Brand, M. (1976). Introduction: Defining causes. In M. Brand (Ed.),The nature of causation (pp. 1–44). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Chow, G. C. (1975).Analysis and control of dynamic economic systems. New York: Wiley.
Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (1979).Quasi-experimentation: Design and analysis issues for field settings. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Cox, D. R., & Snell, E. J. (1981).Applied statistics. London: Chapman and Hall.
Duncan, O. D. (1975).Introduction to structural equation models. New York: Academic.
Fisher, F. M. (1970). A correspondence principle for simulataneous equation models.Econometrica, 38, 73–92.
Fox, J. (1985). Effect analysis in structural equation models. II: Calculation of specific infirect effects.Sociological Methods and Research, 14, 81–95.
Freedman, D. A. (1987). As others see us: A case study in path analysis.Journal of Educational Statistics, 12, 101–129.
Freeman, E. H. (1982).The implementation of effect decomposition methods for two general structural covariance modeling systems. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Los Angeles: University of California, Los Angels, Department of Psychology.
Glymour, C. (1986). Statistics and metaphysics.Journal of the American Statitiscal Association, 81, 964–966.
Goldberger, A. S. (1959).Impact multipliers and dynamic properties of the Klein-Goldberger model. Amsterdam: North Holland.
Graff, J., & Schmidt, P. (1982). A general model for decomposition of effects. In K. G. Jöreskog & D. Sörbom (Eds.),Systems under indirect observation, Part 1 (pp. 131–148). Amsterdam: North Holland.
Graybill, F. A. (1983).Matrices with applications in statistics. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Harary, F. R., Norman, Z., & Cartwright, D. (1965).Structural models: An introduction to the theory of directed graphs. New York: Wiley.
Holland, P. W. (1986). Statistics and causal inference.Journal of the American Statistical Association, 81, 945–960.
Holland, P. W. (1988). Causal inference, path analysis, and recursive structural equations models. In C. C. Clogg (Ed.),Sociological Methodology, 1988. (pp. 449–484). Washington, D. C.: American Sociological Association.
Hume, D. (1977).An enquiry concerning human understanding and A letter from a gentleman to his friend in Edinburgh. Indianapolis: Hackett.
Hume, D. (1978).A treatise of human nature. Cambridge: Oxford University Press.
Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1989).LISREL 7: User's reference guide. Mooresville, IN: Scientific Software.
Kerckhoff, A. C. (1974).Ambition and attainment. Washigton, D. C.: Sociological Association.
Luenberger, D. C. (1979).Introduction to dynamic systems. New York: Wiley.
Pratt, J. W., & Schlaifer, R. (1984). On the nature and discovery of structure.Journal of the American Statistical Association, 79, 9–21.
Rozeboom, W. R. (1956). Mediation variables in scientific theory.Psychological Review, 63, 249–264.
Rubin, D. B. (1974). Estimating causal effects of treatments in randomized and nonrandomized studies.Journal of Educational Psychology, 66, 688–701.
Rubin, D. B. (1978). Bayesian inference for causal effects: the role of randomization.The Annals of Statistics, 6, 34–58.
Rubin, D. B. (1986). Comment: Which ifs have causal answers.Journal of the American Statistical Association, 81, 961–962.
Salmon, W. C. (1984).Scientific explanation and the causal structure of the world. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. In S. Leinhardt (Ed.),Sociological Methodology, 1982 (pp. 290–312). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Sobel, M. E. (1986). Some new results on indirect effects and their standard errors in covariance structure analysis. In N. B. Tuma (Ed.),Sociological Methodology, 1986 (pp. 159–186). Washinton, D. C.: American Sociological Association.
Sobel, M. E. (1987). Direct and indirect effects in linear structural equation models.Sociological Methods and Research, 16, 155–176.
Sobel, M. E., & Arminger, G. (1986). Platonic and operational true scores in covariance structure analysis: An invited comment on Bielby's ‘Arbitrary metrics in multiple indicator models of latent variables’.Sociological Methods and Research, 15, 44–58.
Strotz, R. H., & Wold, H. O. A. (1960). Recursive vs. nonrecursive systems: An attempt at synthesis.Econometrica, 28, 417–427.
Tinbergen, J. (1937).An econometric approach to business cycle problems. Paris: Hermann.
Wheaton, B., Muthén, B., Alwin, D., & Summers, G. (1977). Assessing reliability and stability in panel models. In D. R. Heise (Ed.),Sociological Methodology, 1977 (pp. 84–136). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Winer, B. J. (1971).Statistical Principles in experimental design. New York: McGraw-Hill.