, Volume 58, Issue 2, pp 159–194

A model-based standardization approach that separates true bias/DIF from group ability differences and detects test bias/DTF as well as item bias/DIF

  • Robin Shealy
  • William Stout

DOI: 10.1007/BF02294572

Cite this article as:
Shealy, R. & Stout, W. Psychometrika (1993) 58: 159. doi:10.1007/BF02294572


A model-based modification (SIBTEST) of the standardization index based upon a multidimensional IRT bias modeling approach is presented that detects and estimates DIF or item bias simultaneously for several items. A distinction between DIF and bias is proposed. SIBTEST detects bias/DIF without the usual Type 1 error inflation due to group target ability differences. In simulations, SIBTEST performs comparably to Mantel-Haenszel for the one item case. SIBTEST investigates bias/DIF for several items at the test score level (multiple item DIF called differential test functioning: DTF), thereby allowing the study of test bias/DIF, in particular bias/DIF amplification or cancellation and the cognitive bases for bias/DIF.

Key words

item bias test bias DIF differential test functioning DTF SIB SIBTEST standardization simultaneous items bias valid subtest bias/DIF Mantel-Haenszel 

Copyright information

© The Psychometric Society 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robin Shealy
    • 1
  • William Stout
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of StatisticsUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUSA

Personalised recommendations