Bloxom, B. An alternative method of fitting a model of individual differences in multidimenlonal scaling.*Psychometrika*, 1974,*39*, 365–367.

Bôcher, M.*Introduction to higher algebra*. New York: MacMillan, 1907.

Carroll, J. D. & Chang, J. J. Analysis of individual differences in multidimensional scaling via an*N*-way generalization of “Eckart-Young” decomposition.*Psychometrika*, 1970,*35*, 238–319.

Coombs, C. H.*A theory of data*. New York: Wiley, 1964.

de Leeuw, J.*Canonical analysis of categorical data*. Leiden, the Netherlands: University of Leiden, 1973.

de Leeuw, J., Young, F. W. & Takane, Y. Additive structure in qualitative data: An alternating least squares method with opitmal scaling features.*Psychometrika*, 1976,*41*, 471–503.

Eckart, C. & Young, G. The approximation of one matrix by another of lower rank.*Psychometrika*, 1936,*3*, 211–218.

Ekman, G. Dimensions of color vision.*Journal of Psychology*, 1954,*38*, 467–474.

Fisher, R. A.*Statistical methods for research workers* (10th ed.). Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1946.

Funk, S., Horowitz, A., Lipshitz, R. & Young, F. W. The perceived structure of American ethnic groups: The use of multidimensional scaling in stereotype research.*Sociometry*, in press.

Green, P. E. & Rao, V. R.*Applied multidimensional scaling: A comparison of approaches and algorithms*. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1972.

Guttman, L. A general nonmetric technique for finding the smallest coordinate space for a configuration of points.*Psychometrika*, 1968,*33*, 469–506.

Hageman, L. A. & Prosching, T. A. Aspects of nonlinear block successive overrelaxation.*SIAM Journal of Numerical Analysis*, 1975,*12*, 316–335.

Hayashi, C. Minimum dimension analysis.*Behaviormetrika*, 1974,*1*, 1–24.

Horan, C. B. Multidimensional scaling: Combining observations when individuals have different perceptual structures.*Psychometrika*, 1969,*34*, 139–165.

Johnson, R. M. Pairwise nonmetric multidimensional scaling.*Psychometrika*, 1973,*38*, 11–18.

Johnson, S. C. Hierarchical clustering schemes.*Psychometrika*, 1967,*32*, 241–254.

Jones, L. E. & Young, F. W. The structure of a social environment: A longitudinal individual differences scaling of an intact group.*Journal of Personality and Social Psychology*, 1972,*24*, 108–121.

Jöreskog, K. A general method for analysis of covariance structures.*Biometrika*, 1970,*57*, 239–251.

Kruakal, J. B. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling.*Psychometrika*, 1964,*29*, 1–27; 115–129.

Kruskal, J. B. & Carroll, J. D. Geometric models and badness-of-fit functions. In P. R. Krishnaiah,*Multivariate analysis* (Vol. 2), New York: Academic Press, Inc., 1969.

Lawson, C. L. & Hanson, R. J.*Solving least squares problems*. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1974.

Levin, J. Three-mode factor analysis.*Psychological Bulletin*, 1965,*64*, 442–452.

Levinsohn, J. R. & Young, F. W. Two special-purpose programs that perform nonmetric multidimensional scaling.*Journal of Marketing Research*, 1974,*11*, 315–316.

Lingoes, J. C.*The Guttman-Lingoes nonmetric program series*. Ann Arbor, Michigan: Mathesis Press, 1973.

Lingoes, J. C. & Roskam, E. E. A mathematical and empirical analysis of two multidimensional scaling algorithms.*Psychometrika Monograph Supplement*, 1973,*38* (4, Pt. 2).

McGee, V. C. Multidimensional scaling of*n* sets of similarity measures: A nonmetric individual differences approach.*Multivariate Behavioral Research*, 1968,*3*, 233–248.

Messick, S. J. & Abelson, R. P. The additive constant problem in multidimensional scaling.*Psychometrika*, 1956,*21*, 1–15.

Miller, G. A. & Nicely, P. E. An analysis of perceptual confusions among some English consonants.*Journal of the Acoustical Society of America*, 1953,*27*, 338–352.

Peterson, G. E. & Barney, H. L. Control methods used in a study of the vowels.*Journal of the Acoustical Society of America*, 1952,*24*, 175–184.

Schönemann, P. H. An algebraic solution for a class of subjective metric models.*Psychometrika*, 1972,*37*, 441–451.

Shepard, R. N. The analysis of proximities: Multidimensional scaling with an unknown distance function.*I. Psychometrika*, 1962,*27*, 125–140. (a)

Shepard, R. N. The analysis of proximities: Multidimensional scaling with an unknown distance function. II.*Psychometrika*, 1962,*27*, 219–246. (b)

Shepard, R. N. Stimulus and response generalization: Tests of a model relating generalization of distance in psychological space.*Journal of Experimental Psychology*, 1958,*55*, 509–523.

Spence, I. A Monte Carlo evaluation of three nonmetric multidimensional scaling algorithms.*Psychometrika*, 1972,*37*, 461–486.

Stevens, S. S. Mathematics, measurement, and psychophysics. In S. S. Stevens (Ed.),*Handbook of experimental psychology*. New York: Wiley, 1951.

Stoer, J. On the numerical solution of constrained least-squares problems.*SIAM Journal of Numerical Analysis*, 1971,*8*, 382–411.

Torgerson, W. S. Multidimensional scaling: I. Theory and method.*Psychometrika*, 1952,*17*, 401–419.

Tucker, L. R. Relations between multidimensional scaling and three-mode factor analysis.*Psychometrika*, 1972,*37*, 3–27.

Tucker, L. R. Some mathematical notes on three-mode factor analysis.*Psychometrika*, 1966,*31*, 279–311.

Wilf, H. S. The numerical solution of polynomial equations. In A. Ralston & W. S. Wilf (Eds.),*Mathematical methods of digital computers* (Vol. 1). New York: Wiley, 1960.

Wold, H. & Lyttkens, E. Nonlinear iterative partial least squares (NIPALS) estimation procedures.*Bulletin ISI*, 1969,*43*, 29–47.

Yates, F. The analysis of replicated experiments when the field results are incomplete.*The Empire Journal of Experimental Agriculture*, 1933,*1*, 129–142.

Young, F. W. A model for polynomial conjoint analysis algorithms. In R. N. Shepard, A. K. Romney, & S. Nerlove (Eds.),*Multidimensional scaling* (Vol. 1). New York: Seminar Press, 1972.

Young, F. W. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling: Recovery of metric information.*Psychometrika*, 1970,*35*, 455–474.

Young, F. W. POLYCON: A program for multidimensionally scaling one-, two-, or three-way data in additive, difference, or multiplicative spaces.*Behavioral Science*, 1973,*18*, 152–155.

Young, F. W. Methods for describing ordinal data with cardinal models.*Journal of Mathematical Psychology*, 1975,*12*, 416–436. (a)

Young, F. W. Scaling replicated conditional rank-order data.*Sociological Methodology*, 1975,*12*, 129–170. (b)

Young, F. W., de Leeuw, J., & Takane, Y. Regression with qualitative and quantitative variables: An alternating least squares method with optimal scaling features.*Psychometrika*, 1976,*41*, 505–529.

Young, F. W. & Torgerson, W. S. TORSCA, a Fortran-IV program for nommetric multidimensional scaling.*Behavioral Science*, 1968,*13*, 343–344.