Carroll, J. D. & Chang, J. J. Analysis of individual differences in multidimensional scaling via an N-way generalization of “Eckart-Young” decomposition.*Psychometrika*, 1970,*35*, 283–320.

Carroll, J. D. & Wish, M. Models and methods for three-way multidimensional scaling. In D. H. Krantz, R. D. Luce, R. C. Atkinson, & P. Suppes (Eds.),*Contemporary developments in mathematical psychology* (Vol. II). San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1974.

d'Esopo, D. A. A convex programming procedure.*Naval Research Logistics Quarterly*, 1959,*11*, 33–42.

Hubert, L. J. & Baker, F. B. Evaluating the symmetry of a proximity matrix.*Quality & Quantity*, 1979,*13*, 77–84.

Israelsson, A. Three-way (or second order) component analysis. In H. Wold & E. Lyttkens (Eds.), Nonlinear iterative partial least-squares (NIPALS) estimation procedures.*Bulletin of the International Statistical Institute*, 1969,*43*, 29–51.

Meyer, R. R. The validity of a family of optimization methods.*SIAM Journal of Control and Optimization*, 1970,*15*, 699–715.

Miller, G. A. & Nicely, P. E. An analysis of perceptual confusion among some English consonants.*Journal of the Acoustical Society of America*, 1955,*27*, 338–352.

Osgood, C. E., Suci, G. J. & Tannenbaum, T. H.*The measurement of meaning*. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1957.

Ostrowski, A. M.*Solution of equations and systems of equations*. New York: Academic Press, 1966.

Penrose, R. On the best approximate solutions of linear matrix equations.*Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society*, 1955,*51*, 406–413.

Rutishauser, H. Computational aspects of F. L. Bauer's simultaneous iteration method.*Numerische Mathematik*, 1969,*13*, 4–13.

Sands, R. & Young, F. W. Component models for three-way data: ALSCOMP3, an alternating least squares algorithm with optimal scaling features.*Psychometrika*, 1980,*45*, 39–67.

Schwartz, H. R., Rutishauser, H. & Stiefel, E.*Numerik. Symmetrischer matrizen*. Stuttgart: Teubner, 1968.

Shepard, R. N. Psychological representation of speech sounds. In E. E. David & P. B. Denes (Eds.),*Human communication. A unified view*. New York: McGraw Hill, 1972.

Shepard, R. N. Representation of structure in similarity data: Problems and prospects.*Psychometrika*, 1974,*39*, 373–421.

Smith, P. T. Feature-testing models and their application to perception and memory for speech.*Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology*, 1973,*25*, 511–534.

Smith, P. T. & Jones, K. F. Some hierarchical scaling methods for confusion matrix analysis II. Application to large matrices.*British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology*, 1975,*28*, 30–45.

Soli, S. D. & Arabie, P. Auditory versus phonetic accounts of observed confusions between consonant phonemes.*Journal of the Acoustical Society of America*, 1979,*66*, 46–59.

Takane, Y., Young, F. W. & de Leeuw, J. Non-metric individual differences multidimensional scaling: An alternating least squares method with optimal scaling features.*Psychometrika*, 1977,*42*, 7–67.

Tucker, L. R. Implications of factor analysis of three-way matrices for measurement of change. In C. W. Harris (Ed.),*Problems in measuring change*. Madison, Wis.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1963.

Tucker, L. R. The extension of factor analysis to three-dimensional matrices. In H. Gulliksen & N. Frederiksen (Eds.),*Contributions to mathematical psychology*. New York: Holt, Rinehardt & Winston, 1964.

Tucker, L. R. Some mathematical notes on three-mode factor analysis.*Psychometrika*, 1966,*31*, 279–311.

Tucker, L. R. Relations between multidimensional scaling and three-mode factor analysis.*Psychometrika*, 1972,*37*, 3–27.

Tucker, L. R. & Messick, S. An individual difference model for multidimensional scaling.*Psychometrika*, 1963,*28*, 333–367.

Wainer, H., Gruvaeus, G. & Blair, M. TREBIG: A 360/75 FORTRAN program for three-mode factor analysis for big data sets.*Behavioral Research Methods and Instrumentation*, 1974,*6*, 53–54.

Wainer, H., Gruvaeus, G. & Snijder, F. TREMOD: A 360/75 program for three-mode factor analysis.*Behavioral Science*, 1971,*16*, 421–422.

Walsh, J. A. An IBM 709 program for factor analyzing three-mode matrices.*Educational and Psychological Measurement*, 1964,*24*, 669–773.

Walsh, J. A. & Walsh, R. A revised Fortran program for three-mode factor analysis.*Educational and Psychological Measurement*, 1976,*36*, 169–170.

Young, F. W., de Leeuw, J. & Takane, Y. Quantifying qualitative data. In E. D. Lantermann & H. Feger (Eds.),*Similarity and choice*. Bern: Huber, 1980 (in press).