Simultaneous factor analysis in several populations
 K. G. Jöreskog
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This paper is concerned with the study of similarities and differences in factor structures between different groups. A common situation occurs when a battery of tests has been administered to samples of examinees from several populations.
A very general model is presented, in which any parameter in the factor analysis models (factor loadings, factor variances, factor covariances, and unique variances) for the different groups may be assigned an arbitrary value or constrained to be equal to some other parameter. Given such a specification, the model is estimated by the maximum likelihood method yielding a large samplex ^{2} of goodness of fit. By computing several solutions under different specifications one can test various hypotheses.
The method is capable of dealing with any degree of invariance, from the one extreme, where nothing is invariant, to the other extreme, where everything is invariant. Neither the number of tests nor the number of common factors need to be the same for all groups, but to be at all interesting, it is assumed that there is a common core of tests in each battery that is the same or at least contentwise comparable.
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 Title
 Simultaneous factor analysis in several populations
 Journal

Psychometrika
Volume 36, Issue 4 , pp 409426
 Cover Date
 19711201
 DOI
 10.1007/BF02291366
 Print ISSN
 00333123
 Online ISSN
 18600980
 Publisher
 SpringerVerlag
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 Authors

 K. G. Jöreskog ^{(1)}
 Author Affiliations

 1. Educational Testing Service, USA