# Estimating true-score distributions in psychological testing (an empirical bayes estimation problem)

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DOI: 10.1007/BF02289358

- Cite this article as:
- Lord, F.M. Psychometrika (1969) 34: 259. doi:10.1007/BF02289358

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## Abstract

The following problem is considered: Given that the frequency distribution of the errors of measurement is known, determine or estimate the distribution of true scores from the distribution of observed scores for a group of examinees. Typically this problem does not have a unique solution. However, if the true-score distribution is “smooth,” then any two smooth solutions to the problem will differ little from each other. Methods for finding smooth solutions are developed a) for a population and b) for a sample of examinees. The results of a number of tryouts on actual test data are summarized.