Motivation and Emotion

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 109–128

Trust, social categories, and individuals: The case of gender

  • John Orbell
  • Robyn Dawes
  • Peregrine Schwartz-Shea

DOI: 10.1007/BF02249396

Cite this article as:
Orbell, J., Dawes, R. & Schwartz-Shea, P. Motiv Emot (1994) 18: 109. doi:10.1007/BF02249396


While the cooperate vs. defect choice in the prisoner's dilemma is not an appropriate paradigm for the study of trust and trusting behavior, the play vs. not play choiceis. We show that femalesas a category are more trusted to cooperate — by both male and female judges — than males. Yet neither male nor female judges use gender to predict cooperation from particular individuals (trust) or as a criterion for choosing to play (trusting behavior) when they have the option of not playing particular prisoner's dilemma games. Further, in our experimental context, female and male did not differ in their cooperation rates. We speculate (a) that subjects' generalized expectations are a response to gender-based role differences outside the laboratory, (b) that subjects' failure to make individual-by-individual discriminations by gender is a response to the fact that the experimental context made such natural-world roles irrelevant, and (c) that our findings about the irrelevance of genderper se in trusting relationships will be true for other social categoriesper se.

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Orbell
    • 1
  • Robyn Dawes
    • 2
  • Peregrine Schwartz-Shea
    • 3
  1. 1.University of OregonUSA
  2. 2.Carnegie-Mellon UniversityUSA
  3. 3.University of UtahUSA

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