, Volume 100, Issue 3, pp 404–412

Intermittent and continuous haloperidol regimens produce different types of oral dyskinesias in rats

  • Ronald E. See
  • Gaylord Ellison
Original Investigations

DOI: 10.1007/BF02244615

Cite this article as:
See, R.E. & Ellison, G. Psychopharmacology (1990) 100: 404. doi:10.1007/BF02244615


Rats were administered equivalent doses of haloperidol for either 28 days or 8 months using one of two different drug regimens: intermittent (i.e., weekly injections) or continuously (via drinking water and osmotic minipumps). Oral movements were determined by human observers and by a computerized video analysis system, which determined number and amplitude of jaw openings and closings (computer-scored movelets “CSMs”) as well as the slope (amplitude/duration) and frequency spectrum (fourier transform) of oral activity. The two drug groups developed distinctively different changes over time. Continuous administration resulted in late-onset oral activity changes at 1–3 Hz and withdrawal increases in CSMs, a pattern expected of tardive dyskinesia. Intermittent treatment produced a primed dystonia-like pattern: large amplitude CSMs which had steep onset slopes and a peak energy at 4–7 Hz. These results demonstrate the importance of drug regimen in determining the type of neuroleptic-induced dyskinesias which develop with prolonged neuroleptic treatment in rodents.

Key words

Neuroleptics Haloperidol Tardive dyskinesia Dystonia Animal models Rats 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald E. See
    • 1
  • Gaylord Ellison
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA

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