Nakamura, H. J Oceanogr (1996) 52: 171. doi:10.1007/BF02235668
A water mass characterized by the pycnostad on the bottom of the ventilated portion in the central subtropical North Pacific is described through the comparison with the Subtropical Mode Wate (STMW). In this paper, this water mass is called the North Pacific Central Mode Water (CMW), because of its vertical homogeneity. The distribution of CMW is examined based on the climatological maps of annual mean potential vorticity. On the other hand, its formation area is examined based on the climatological winter temperature data set and the STD sections across the Kuroshio Extension in early spring of individual years. The main results are summarized as follows: 1) STMW is formed in the deep winter mixed layer south of the main path of the Kuroshio Extension (termed 12°C Front in this paper). On the other hand, CMW is formed in the deep winter mixed layer in the east-west band surrounded by a branch of the Kuroshio Extension (termed 9°C Front in this paper) and the boundary of two water masses representing the subtropical and subpolar gyres. 2) The winter mixed layer between the 12°C Front and the 9°C Front is shallower than that in the CMW and STMW formation areas. 3) These geographical features of the winter mixed layer depths near the subarcticsubtropical transition zone result in two pycnostads (STMW and CMW) in the main thermocline of the subtropical North Pacific through the advection caused by the subtropical gyre.