M. W. Greaves, R. Marks and I. Robertson,Receptors for histamine in human skin blood vessels. A review. Br. J. Dermatol.92, 225–228 (1977).
T. Lewis,The blood vessels of the human skin and their responses. Shaw, London 1927.
J. F. Riley and G. B. West,The presence of histamine in tissue mast cells. J. Physiol (Lond)120, 528–537 (1953).
R. A. J. Eady, T. Cowen, T. F. Marshall, V. Plummer and M. W. Greaves,Mast cell population density, blood vessel density and histamine content of normal human skin
. Br. J. Dermatol.100
, 623–633 (1979).PubMed
B. Uvnäs, C.-H. Aborg and A. Bergendorff,Storage of histamine in mast cells. Evidence for ionic binding of histamine to protein carboxyls in the granule heparin protein complex. Acta Physiol. Scand.336 (Suppl), 1–26 (1970).
F. Golz,Über Gefäßerweiternde Nerven. Pfugers Arch.9, 174–197 (1874).
J. N. Langley,On axon reflexes in the preganglionic fibres of the sympathetic system. J. Physiol. (Lond)25, 364–398 (1900).
W. M. Bayliss,On the origin from the spinal cord of the vasodilator fibres of the hind limb, and on the nature of these fibres. J. Physiol. (Lond)36, 173–209 (1901).
O. Celander and B. Folkow,The nature and distribution of afferent fibres provided with the axon reflex arrangement
. Acta Physiol. Scand.29
, 359–370 (1953).PubMed
J. Van-Hees and J. M. Gybels,Pain related to single afferent C fibres from human skin
. Brain Res.48
, 397–400 (1972).PubMed
H. E. Torebjork and R. G. Hallin,Identification of afferent C units in intact human skin
. Brain Res.67
, 387–403, (1974).PubMed
P. Kenins,Identification of the unmyelinated sensory nerves which evoke plasma extravasation in response to antidromic stimulation
. Neurosci Lett.25
, 137–141 (1981).PubMed
T. Hokfelt, J. O. Kellerth, G. Nillson and B. Pernow,Experimental immunohistochemical studies on the localization and distribution of substance P in cat primary sensory neurones
. Brain Res.100
, 235–252 (1975).PubMed
E. Brodin, B. Gazelius, J. M. Lundberg, and L. Olgart,Substance P in trigeminal nerve endings: occurrence and release. Acta Physiol. Scand.111, 501–503 (1983).
D. M. White and R. P. Helm,Release of substance P from peripheral nerve terminals following electrical stimulation of the sciatic nerve
. Brain Res.336
, 27–31 (1985).PubMed
P. Keen, A. J. Harmar, F. Spears and E. Winter,Biosynthesis, axonal transport and turnover of neuronal substance P. InSubstance P in the nervous system. Ciba Foundation Symposium. (Eds. R. Porter and M. O'Connor pp. 145–164. London, Pitman 1982.
H. Nawa, T. Hirose, H. Takashima, S. Inayama and S. Nakanishi,Nucleotide sequences of cloned CDNA's for two types of bovine brain substance P preursor
, 32–36 (1983).PubMed
H. Nawa, H. Kotani and S. Nakanishi,Tissue generation of two preprotachykinin mRNAs from one gene by alternative RNA spacing
, 729–734 (1984).PubMed
J. Fisher, W. G. Forssman, T. Hokfelt, J. M. Lundberg, M. Rienecke, F. A. Tschopp and Z. Wiesenfeld Hakin,Immunoreactive calcitonin gene-related peptide and substance P: coexistence in sensory neurones and behavioural interaction after intrathecal administration in the rat. J. Physiol. (Lond)362 329P (1983).
O. Hagermark, T. Hokfelt and B. Pernow,Flare and itch induced by substance P in human skin
. J. Invest. Dermatol.71
, 233–235 (1978).PubMed
P. Anand, S. R. Bloom and G. P. McGregor,Topical capsaicin pretreatment inhibits axon reflex vasodilation caused by somatostatin and vasoactive polypeptide in human skin
, Br. J. Pharmacol.78
, 665–669 (1983).PubMed
J. C. Foreman, C. C. Jordan, P. Oehme and H. Renner,Structure-activity relationships for some substance P-related peptides that cause wheal and flare rections in human skin. J. Physiol. (Lond)335, 449–465 (1983).
J. C. Foreman and W. Piotrowski,Some effects of substance P antagonists on mast cells. InTachykinin Antagonists. (Eds. R. Hakanson and F. Sundler) pp. 405–412, Amsterdam, Elsevier 1985.
S. D. Brain, J. R. Tippins, H. R. Morris, I. MacIntyre and T. J. Williams,Potent vasodilator activity of calcitonin generelated peptide in human skin
. J. Invest. Dermatol.87
, 533–536 (1986).PubMed
E. Theriault, M. Otsuka and T. JesselCapsaicin-evoked release of substance P from primary sensory neurones
. Brain Res.170
, 209–213 (1979).PubMed
I. Toth-Kasa, G., Jancso, F., Obal, S. Husz and N. Simon,Involvement of sensory nerve endings in the cold and heat urticaria
. J. Invest. Dermatol.80
, 34–36 (1983).PubMed
A. Saria and J. M. Lundberg,Capsaicin pretreatment inhibits heat-induced oedema in rat skin. Naunyn Schmiedeberg's Arch. Pharmacol.323, 341–342 (1983).
A. R. Johnson and E. G. Erdos,Release of histamine from mast cells by vasoactive peptides
. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.142
, 1252–1256 (1973).PubMed
J. C. Foreman, C. C. Jordan and W. Pietrowski,Interaction of neurotensin with the substance P receptor mediating histamine release from rat mast cells and the flare in human skin
. Br. J. Pharmacol.77
, 531–539 (1982).PubMed
A. P. Kaplan, L. Gray, R. E. Shaff, Z. Horakova and M. A. Beaven,In vivo studies of mediator release in cold urticaria and cholinergic urticaria
. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.55
, 394–402 (1975).PubMed
D. J. Heavey, A. Kobza-Black, S. E. Barrow, C. G. Chappell, M. W. Greaves and C. T. Dollery,Prostaglandin D2 and histamine release in cold urticaria
. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.78
, 458–461 (1986).PubMed
O. Koro, J. S. Dover, D. M. Francis, A. Kobza-Black, R. W. Kelly, R. M. Barr and M. W. Greaves,Release of prostaglandin D2 and histamine in a case of localized heat urticaria and effects of treatments
. Br. J. Dermatol.115
, 721–728 (1986).PubMed
M. D. Tharp, R. T., Suvunrungsi and T. J. Sullivan,IgEmediated release of histamine from human cutaneous mast cells
. J. Immunol.130
, 1896–1901 (1983).PubMed
R. C. Benyon, M. A. Lowman and M. K. Church,Human skin mast cells: their dispersion, purification and secretory characterization
. J. Immunol.138
, 861–867 (1987).PubMed
I. Kimura, Y. Moritani and Y. Tanizaki,Basophils in bronchial asthma with reference to reagin-type allergy
. Clin. Allergy3
, 195–202 (1973).PubMed
M. K. Church, G. J.-K. Pao and S. T. Holgate,Characterization of histamine secretion from dispersed human lung mast cells: effects of anti-IgE, calcium ionophore A23187, compound 48/80 and basic polypeptides
. J. Immunol.129
, 2116–2121 (1982).PubMed
M. A. Lowman, P. H. Rees, R. C. Benyon and M. K. Church,Human mast cell heterogeneity: Histamine release from mast cells dispersed from skin, lung, adenoids, tonsils and intestinal mucosa in response to IgE-dependent and non-immunological stimuli
. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.81
, 590–597 (1988).PubMed
P. H. Rees, K. Hillier and M. K. Church,The secretory characteristics of mast cells isolated from human intestinal mucosa and muscle
, 437–442 (1988).PubMed
M. A. Lowman, R. C. Benyon and M. K. Church,Characterization of neuropeptide-induced histamine release from human dispersed skin mast cells
. Br. J. Pharmacol.95
, 121–130 (1988).PubMed
F. Shanahan, J. A. Denburg, J. Fox, J. Bienenstock and D. Befus,Mast cell heterogeneity: effects of neuroenteric peptides on histamine release
. J. Immunol.135
, 1331–1337 (1985).PubMed
F. A. Horner and R. K. Winkelman,Histamine release produced in human skin by compound 48/80
. Ann. Allergy26
, 107–116 (1968).PubMed
T. B. Casale, S. Bowman and M. Kaliner,Induction of human cutaneous mast cell degranulation by opiates and endogenous opioid peptides: evidence for opiate and nonopiate receptor participation
. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.73
, 775–781 (1984).PubMed
T. D. G. Lee, M. Swieter, J. Bienenstock and A. D. Befus,Heterogeneity in mast cell populations
. Clin. Immunol. Rev.4
, 143–199 (1985).PubMed
C. M. Fewtrell, J. C. Foreman, C. C. Jordan, P. Oehme, H. Renner and J. M. Stewart,The effects of substance P on histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine release in the rat. J. Physiol. (Lond)330, 393–411 (1982).
H. Repke, W. Piotrowski, M. Bienert and J. C. Foreman,Histamine release induced by Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro(CH
from rat peritoneal mast cells
. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.243
, 317–321 (1987).PubMed
W. Piotrowski, M. A. B. Devoy, C. C. Jordan and J. C. Foreman,The substance P receptor on rat mast cells and in human skin
. Agents and Actions14
, 420–423 (1984).PubMed
R. C. Benyon, C. Robinson, S. T. Holgate and M. K. Church,Prostaglandin D2 release from human skin mast cells in response to ionophore A23187
. Br. J. Pharmacol.92
, 635–638 (1987).PubMed
C. Robinson, R. C. Benyon, S. T. Holgate and M. K. Church,The IgE- and calcium-dependent release of eicosanoids and histamine from human cutaneous mast cells. (submitted).
R. C. Benyon, C. Robinson and M. K. Church,Differential release of histamine and eicosanoids from human skin mast cells by IgE-dependent and non-immunological stimuli. (submitted).
E. J. Goetzl, M. J. Phillips and W. M. Gold,Stimulus specificity of the generation of leukotrienes by dog mastocytoma cells
. J. Exp. Med.158
, 731–737 (1983).PubMed
S. R. Findlay, L. M. Lichtenstein and J. A. Grant,Generation of slow reacting substance from human leukocytes. II. Comparison of stimulation by antigens, calcium ionophore and C5 peptide
. J. Immunol.124
, 238–242 (1980).PubMed
Y. Kitamura, T. Nakano, Y. Kanakura and H. Matsuda,Factors influencing mast cell differention. InProceedings of the XII. International Congress of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. (Ed. C. E. Reed) J. Allergy. Clin. Immunol. pp. 154–158, St. Louis 1986.
E. E. E. Jarrett and H. R. P. Miller,Production and activities of IgE in helminth infection
. Prog. Allergy31
, 178–233 (1982).PubMed
J. N. Ihle, J. Keller, S. Oroszlan, L. E. Henderson, T. D. Copeland, F. Fitch, M. B. Prytsowsky, E. Goldwasser, J. W. Schrader, E. Palaszynski, M. Dy and B. Lebel,Biological properties of homogenous interleukin 3: Demonstration of WEHI-3 growth factor activity, mast cell growth factor activity, P-cell stimulating factor activity, colony-stimulating activity and histamine producing cell stimulating factor activity
. J. Immunol.131
, 282–287 (1983).PubMed
K. Hirai, A. L. De Weck and B. M. Stadler,Characterization of a human basophil-like cell promoting activity
. J. Immunol.140
, 221–227 (1988).PubMed
L. Wiesner-Menzel, B. Schulz, F. Vakilzadeh and B. M. Czarnetzki,Electron microscopical evidence for a direct contact between nerve fibres and mast cells. Acta Derm. Venereol. (Stockh.)61, 465–469 (1981).
J. C. Foreman and W. Piotrowski,Peptides and histamine release
. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.74
, 127–131 (1984).PubMed
L. Enerbäck,Mast cell heterogeneity: The evolution of the concept of a specific mucosal mast cell. InMast cell differentiation and heterogeneity. (Eds. A. D. Befus, J. Bienenstock, J. A. Denburg) pp. 1–26, New York, Raven Press 1986.
R. G. Woodbury and H. R. P. Miller,Quantitative analysis of mucosal mast cell protease in the intestine of Nippostrongylus-infected rats
, 487–495 (1982).PubMed
L. B. Schwartz,Monoclonal antibodies against human mast cell tryptase demonstrate shared antigenic sites on subunits of tryptase and selective localization of the enzyme to mast cells
. J. Immunol.134
, 526–531 (1985).PubMed
N. M. Schechter, J. K. Choi, D. A. Slavin, D. T. Deresienski, S. Sayama, G. Dong, R. M. Lavaker, D. Proud and G. S. Lazarus,Identifikation of a chymotrypsin-like proteinase from human mast cells
. J. Immunol.137
, 962–970 (1986).PubMed
A. A. Irani, N. M. Schechter, S. Craig, G. DeBlois and L. B. Schwartz,Two types of human mast cells that have distinct neutral protease compositions
. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA83
, 4464–4468 (1986).PubMed
L. B. Schwartz, A. M. Irani, K. Roller, M. Castells and N. M. Schechter,Quantitation of histamine, tryptase, and chymase in dispersed human T and CT mast cells
. J. Immunol.138
, 2611–2615 (1987).PubMed
A. A. Irani, R. Buckley, B. Haynes, N. M. Schechter and L. B. Schwartz,Selective depletion of T mast cells in intestinal mucosa of patients with defective lymphocyte function (Abstract). J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.79, 178 (1987).
S. Strobel, H. R. P. Miller and A. Ferguson,Human intestinal mucosal mast cells: evaluation of fixation and staining techniques
. J. Clin. Pathol.34
, 851–858 (1981).PubMed
A. D. Befus, R. Goodacre, N. Dyck and J. Bienenstock,Mast cell heterogeneity in man. I. Histologic studies of the intestine
. Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol.76
, 232–236 (1985).PubMed
K. C. Flint, K. B. P. Leung, F. L. Pearce, B. N. Hudspith, J. Brostoff and N. McI. Johnson,Human mast cells recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage: their morphology, histamine release and effects of sodium cromoglycate
. Clin. Sci.68
, 427–432 (1985).PubMed
S. T. Holgate, P. Rafferty, R. Beasley, C. Robinson, C. J. Hovell, N. P. Curzen and M. K. Church,In vitro and in vivo studies on mast cells of human skin and airways. InAllergy and inflammation. (Ed. A. B. Kay) pp. 29–52, London, Academic Press 1987.
C. C. Fox, A. M. Dvorak, S. P. Peters, A. Kagey-Sobotka and L. M. Lichtenstein,Isolation and characterization of human intestinal mucosal mast cells
. J. Immunol.135
, 483–491 (1985).PubMed
R. M. Marks, W. R. Roche, M. Czerniecki, R. Penny and D. S. Nelson,Mast cell granules cause proliferation of human microvascular endothelial cells
. Lab. Invest.55
, 289–294 (1986).PubMed
R. W. Schayer,Evidence that induced histamine is an intrinsic regulator of the microcirculatory system
. Am. J. Physiol.202
, 66–72 (1962).PubMed
H. Zachariae,Histamine in human skin. Arch. Dermatol. Venereol.44, 219–222 (1964).
P. M. Bedard, C. Brunet, G. Pelletier and J. Hebert,Increased compound 48/80 induced local histamine release from non-lesional skin from patients with chronic urticaria
. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.78
, 1121–1125 (1986).PubMed
R. W. Cohen und D. L. Rosenstreich,Discrimination between urticaria-prone and other allergic patients by intradermal skin testing with codeine
. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.77
, 802–807 (1986).PubMed
J. C. Foreman,Neuropeptides and the pathogenesis of allergy
, 1–11 (1987).PubMed
M. K. Church, M. A. Lowman, C. Robinson, S. T. Holgate and R. C. Benyon,Interaction of neuropeptides with human mast cells. Int. Arch. Allergy Appl. Immunol. (in press).