Evolutionary Ecology

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 231–247

Seed size, pollination costs and angiosperm success

  • David Haig
  • Mark Westoby

DOI: 10.1007/BF02214230

Cite this article as:
Haig, D. & Westoby, M. Evol Ecol (1991) 5: 231. doi:10.1007/BF02214230


Seed plants capture pollen before seeds are dispersed and abort unpollinated ovules. As a result, each seed is associated with an accessory cost that represents the costs of pollen capture and the costs of aborted ovules. Accessory costs may explain the minimum seed size among species, because these costs are likely to comprise a greater proportion of total reproductive allocation in species with smaller seeds. For very small propagules, the costs of pollination may not be worth the benefits, perhaps explaining the persistence of pteridophytic reproduction at small propagule sizes. The smallest angiosperm seeds are much smaller than the smallest gymnosperm seeds, both in the fossil record and in the modern flora. This suggests that angiosperms can produce pollinated ovules more cheaply than gymnosperms. Pollination becomes less efficient as a species decreases in abundance, and this loss of efficiency is greater for species with a higher accessory cost per seed. We propose that the greater reproductive efficiency of angiosperms when rare can explain why angiosperm-dominated floras were more speciose than the gymnosperm-dominated floras they replaced.


Angiospermspollinationseed size

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Haig
    • 1
  • Mark Westoby
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Plant SciencesUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  2. 2.School of Biological SciencesMacquarie UniversityAustralia