Austism diagnostic observation schedule: A standardized observation of communicative and social behavior
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), a standardized protocol for observation of social and communicative behavior associated with autism, is described. The instrument consists of a series of structured and semistructured presses for interaction, accompanied by coding, of specific target behaviors associated with particular tasks and by general ratings of the quality of behaviors. Interrater reliability for five raters exceeded weighted kappas of .55 for each item and each pair of raters for matched samples of 15 to 40 autistic and nonautistic, mildly mentally handicapped children (M IQ=59) between the ages of 6 and 18 years. Test-retest reliability was adequate. Further analyses compared these groups to two additional samples of autistic and nonautistic subjects with normal intelligence (M IQ=95), matched for sex and chronological age. Analyses yielded clear diagnostic differences in general ratings of social behavior, specific aspects of communication, and restricted or stereotypic behaviors and interests. Clinical guidelines for the diagnosis of autism in the draft version of ICD-10 were operationalized in terms of abnormalities on specific ADOS items. An algorithm based on these items was shown to have high reliability and discriminant validity.
- American Psychiatric Association. (1987).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed. rev.) Washington: Author.
- Cicchetti, D. V., Lee, C. Fontana, A. F., & Dowds, B. N. (1978). A computer program for assessing specific category rater agreement for qualitative data.Educational and Psychological Measurement, 38, 805–813.
- Cicchetti, D. V., & Sparrow, S. A. (1981). Developing criteria for establishing interrater reliability of specific items: Applications to assessment of adapative behavior.American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 86, 127–137.
- Cohen, J. (1968). Weighted kappa: Nominal scale agreement with provision for scaled disagreement of partial credit.Psychological Bulletin, 70, 213–220.
- Cohen, D. J., Caparulo, B. K., Gold, J. R., Waldo, M. C., Shaywitz, B., Ruttenberg, B. A., & Rimland, B. (1978). Agreement in diagnosis: Clinical assessment and behavior rating scales for pervasively disturbed children.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 17, 589–603.
- Conger, A. J. (1980). Integration and generalization of kappa for multiple raters.Psychological Bulletin, 88, 322–328.
- Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1981).Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised: Manual for Forms L and M. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
- Farrell, A. D., Mariotto, M. J., Conger, A. J., Curran, J. P., & Wallander, J. L. (1979). Selfratings and judges' ratings of heterosexual social anxiety and skill: A generalizability study.Journal of Consulting and Clinical psychology 47, 164–175.
- Fleiss, J. (1986).The design and analysis of clinical experiments. New York: Wiley.
- Freeman, B. J., Ritvo, E. R., Guthrie, D., Schroth, P., & Ball, J. (1978). The behavior observation, scale for autism: Initial methodology, data analysis, and preliminary findings on 89 children.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 17, 576–588.
- Freeman, B. J., Ritvo, E. R., & Schroth, P. C. (1984). Behavior assessment of the syndrome of autism: Behavior Observation System.Journal of American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 588–594.
- Hubert, L. (1977). Kappa revisited.Psychological Bulletin, 84, 289–297.
- Hubert, L. J. (1978). A general formula for the variance of Cohen's weighted kappa.Psychological Bulletin, 85, 183–184.
- Krug, D. A., Arick, J., & Almond, P. (1980). Behavior checklist for identifying severely handicapped individuals with high levels of autistic behavior.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 21, 221–229.
- LeCouteur, A., Rutter, M., Lord, C., Rios, P., Robertson, S., Holdgrafer, M., & McLennan, J. D. (1989). Autism diagnostic interview.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19.
- Lord, C., & Magill, J. (1989). Observing social behavior in an asocial population: Methodological and clinical issues. In G. Dawson (Ed.),Autism: New perspectives on diagnosis, nature and treatment. New York: Guilford Press.
- Magill, J., & Lord, C. (1988). An observational study of greetings of autistic, behavior-disordered and normally developing children. Manuscript submitted for publication.
- Marascuilo, L. A., & McSweeney, M. (1977).Nonparametric and distribution-free methods for the social sciences. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.
- Mundy, P., Sigman, M., Ungerer, J., & Sherman, T. (1986). Defining the social deficits of autism: The contribution of nonverbal communication measures.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27, 657–669.
- Murray, H. A. (1938).Explorations in personality. New York: Oxford.
- Parks, S. L. (1983). The assessment of autistic children: A selective review of available instruments.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 225–268.
- Pettit, G. S., McClaskey, C. L., Brown, M. M., & Dodge, K. A. (1987). The generalizability of laboratory assessments of children's socially competent behavior in specific situations.Behavioral Assessments, 9, 81–96.
- Rice, J. P., McDonald-Scott, P., Endicott, J., Coryell, W., Grove, W. M., Keller, M. B., & Altis, D. (1986). The stability of diagnosis with an application to bipolar II disorder.Psychiatry Research, 19, 285–296.
- Ruttenberg, B. A., Kalish, B. I., Wenar, C. & Wolf, E. G. (1977).Behavioral rating instrument for autistic and other atypical children. Philadelphia: The Developmental Center for Autistic Children.
- Rutter, M. (1978). Diagnosis and definition of childhood autism.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 8, 139–161.
- Rutter, M. (1985). Infantile autism. In D. Shaffer, A. Erhardt, & L. Greenhill (Eds.).A clinical guide to child psychiatry (pp. 48–78). New York: Free Press.
- Rutter, M., Le Couteur, A., Lord, C., MacDonald, H., Rios, P., & Folstein, S. (1988). Diagnosis and subclassification of autism: Concepts and instrument development. In E. Schopler & G. B. Mesibov (Eds.),Diagnostic and assessment issues in autism (pp. 239–260). New York: Plenum Press.
- Rutter, M., & Schopler, E. (1987). Autism and pervasive developmental disorders: Concepts and diagnostic issues.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17, 159–186.
- Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., & Renner, B. R. (1986).The Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) for diagnostic screening and classification of autism. New York: Irvington Publishers.
- Siegel, B., Anders, T. F., Ciaranello, R. D., Beinenstock, B., & Kraemer, H. C. (1986). Empirically derived classification of the autistic syndrome.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 16, 275–293.
- Teal, M. B., & Wiebe, M. J. (1986). A validity analysis of selected instruments used to assess autism.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 16, 485–494.
- Volkmar, F. R., Cicchetti, D. V., Dykens, E., Sparrow, S. S., Leckman, J. F., & Cohen, D. J. (1988). An evaluation of the Autism Behavior Checklist.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 18, 81–98.
- Volkmar, F. R., Sparrow, S. S., Goudreau, D., Cicchetti, D. V., Paul, R., & Cohen, D. J. (1987). Social deficits in autism: An operational approach using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales.Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 156–161.
- Wechsler, D. (1974).Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. New York: Psychological Corp.
- Wechsler, D. (1981).Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. New York: Psychological Corp.
- Wenar, C., Ruttenberg, R. A., Kalish-Weiss, B., & Wolf, E. G. (1986). The development of normal and autistic children: A comparative study.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 16, 317–334.
- Wolff, S., & Barlow, A. (1979). Schizoid personality in childhood: A comparative study of schizoid, autistic and normal children.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 20, 29–46.
- World Health Organization. (1987).ICD-10 1986 draft of chapter 5 categories F00-F99. Mental, behavioral and developmental disorders. Geneva: Author.
- Austism diagnostic observation schedule: A standardized observation of communicative and social behavior
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Volume 19, Issue 2 , pp 185-212
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada
- 2. Department of Psychology, Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital, 10230-111 Avenue, T5G 0B7, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
- 3. MRC Child Psychiatry Unit, University of London, London, UK
- 4. University of North Carolina, North Carolina, USA