Natural history of superficial bladder tumors: 10- to 20-year follow-up of treated patients
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- Herr, H.W. World J Urol (1997) 15: 84. doi:10.1007/BF02201977
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Superficial bladder tumors (Ta, T1, Tis) account for 80% of primary bladder cancers. Transurethral resection and intravesical therapy are successful in controlling the majority of these tumors for up to 5 years. However, patients with multiple or recurrent Ta, T1 and Tis bladder cancer have a lifelong risk of developing stage progression and upper tract tumors. One-half are at risk of having cystectomy eventually and one-third are at risk over a 15-20 year period of dying of bladder cancer.