Journal of Biomolecular NMR

, Volume 2, Issue 6, pp 661–665

Gradient-tailored excitation for single-quantum NMR spectroscopy of aqueous solutions


  • Martial Piotto
    • Unite Mixte de Recherche Bruker, CNRSUniversite Louis Pasteur UMR50
  • Vladimir Saudek
    • Marion Merrell Dow Research Institute
  • Vladimir Sklenář
    • Marion Merrell Dow Research Institute

DOI: 10.1007/BF02192855

Cite this article as:
Piotto, M., Saudek, V. & Sklenář, V. J Biomol NMR (1992) 2: 661. doi:10.1007/BF02192855


A novel approach to tailored selective excitation for the measurement of NMR spectra in non-deuterated aqueous solutions (WATERGATE, WATER suppression by GraAdient-Tailored Excitation) is described. The gradient echo sequence, which effectively combines one selective 180° radiofrequency pulse and two field gradient pulses, achieves highly selective and effective water suppression. This technique is ideally suited for the rapid collection of multi-dimensional data since a single-scan acquisition produces a pure phase NMR spectrum with a perfectly flat baseline, at the highest possible sensitivity. Application to the fast measurement of 2D NOE data of a 2.2. mM solution of a double-stranded DNA fragment in 90% H2O at 5 °C is presented.


Gradient-tailored NMRSelective excitationWater suppressionDNA exchangeable protons2D NOESY

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© ESCOM Science Publishers B.V. 1992