, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp 293-300

Effects of IL-1 on hematopoietic progenitors after myelosuppressive chemoradiotherapy

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Recently it has been recognized that IL-1 plays an important role in hematopoietic regulation. Administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) to mice causes prolonged neutropenia. rHIL-1 injected to mice after 5-FU, accelerated the recovery of hematopoietic progenitors and blood neutrophils. The combination of rhIL-1 and rhG-CSF reduced the neutropenic period significantly. Sublethal irradiation of mice induced profound neutropenia for 3 weeks which was associated with 80% mortality. Administration of rhIL-1 20 hours prior to or 2 hours post irradiation resulted in a significantly improved survival and rapid recovery of the neutrophil count. IL-1 administered alone or in combination with other colony stimulating factors to spontaneous breast tumor bearing mice following 5-FU therapy resulted in a rapid recovery of neutrophils, improved survival, and markedly reduced the tumor mass. Experiments in primates demonstrated that rhIL-1 administered to 5-FU treated animals shortened the neutropenic period from 30 to 17 days and increased the number of marrow progenitors responsive to other CSFs. Prolonged administration of IL-1 (14 days) to these animals resulted in a delayed neutrophil recovery as compared to animals receiving short courses of IL-1. rhIL-1 administered to primates receiving marrow grafts after lethal irradiation, did not result in rapid hematopoietic recovery. In humans, studies with CD-34 positive marrow cells showed that IL-1 had a radioprotective effect on a committed and early marrow progenitors. These data show the therapeutic potential of IL-1 in the treatment of chemoradiotherapy induced myelosuppression.