Hard-to-manage preschool boys: Externalizing behavior, social competence, and family context at two-year followup
- Susan B. Campbell Ph.D.
- … show all 1 hide
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Boys, identified as hard to manage in preschool, were followed up 2 years after initial assessment. Mothers, fathers, and teachers continued to rate hard-to-manage boys as having more problems with attention and impulse control, and as more oppositional, than comparison boys who had been problem-free at intake; problem boys also were rated as less socially competent by all three informants. Differences in severity were apparent as a function of initial referral source. Boys identified as showing significant problems by at least two informants (28% of the problem boys) were especially low in social competence and their mothers reported more symptoms of depression and parenting stress. Family adversity, lower IQ, and severity of symptoms at intake discriminated boys with continuing problems from those with less serious difficulties at followup. Control boys with potentially emerging problems were characterized by more family problems than the remaining control boys. Implications for the development of problems in young children are discussed.
- Abidin, R. R. (1986).Parenting Stress Index Manual (2nd ed.). Charlottesville, VA: Pediatric Psychology Press.
- Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. (1983).Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and the Child Behavior Profile. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
- Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. (1986).Manual for the Teacher's Report Form and Teacher Version of the Child Behavior Profile. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry.
- Achenbach, T. M., McConaughy, S. H., & Howell, C. T. (1987). Child/adolescent behavioral and emotional problems: Implications of cross-informant correlations for situational specificity.Psychological Bulletin, 101, 213–232.
- American Psychiatric Association. (1980).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
- American Psychiatric Association. (1987).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
- Campbell, S. B. (1990).Behavior problems in preschool children: Clinical and developmental issues. New York: Guilford Press.
- Campbell, S. B., Breaux, A. M., Ewing, L. J., & Szumowski, E. K. (1984). A one-year follow-up of parent-identified behavior problem toddlers.Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 243–249.
- Campbell, S. B., & Cluss, P. (1982). Peer relations of young children with behavior problems. In K. H. Rubin & H. S. Ross (Eds.),Peer relationships and social skills in childhood (pp. 323–351). New York: Springer-Verlag.
- Campbell, S. B., & Ewing, L. J. (1990). Hard-to-manage preschoolers: Adjustment at age nine and predictors of continuing symptoms.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31, 871–889.
- Campbell, S. B., Ewing, L. J., Breaux, A. M., & Szumowski, E. K. (1986). Parent-identified behavior problem toddlers: Follow-up at school entry.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27, 473–488.
- Campbell, S. B., March, C., Pierce, E., Ewing, L. J., & Szumowski, E. K. (1991). Hard-to-manage preschool boys: Family context and stability of externalizing behavior.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 19, 301–318.
- Campbell, S. B., Pierce, E. W., March, C. L., Ewing, L. J., & Szumowski, E. K. (1994). Hard-to-manage preschool boys: Symptomatic behavior across contexts and time.Child Development., 65.
- Campbell, S. B., Szumowski, E. K., Ewing, L. J., Gluck, D. S., & Breaux, A. M. (1982). A multidimensional assessment of parent-identified behavior problem toddlers.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 569–592.
- Cohen, S., & Bromet, E. (1992). Maternal predictors of behavioral disturbance in preschool children: A research note.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 941–946.
- Crowther, J. K., Bond, L. A., & Rolf, J. E. (1981). The incidence, prevalence and severity of behavior disorders among preschool-aged children in day care.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 9, 23–42.
- Egeland, B., Kalkoske, M., Gottesman, N., & Erickson, M. F. (1990). Preschool behavior problems: Stability and factors accounting for change.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 31, 891–909.
- Fischer, M., Rolf, J. E., Hasazi, J. E., & Cummings, L. (1984). Followup of a preschool epidemiological sample: Cross-age continuities and predictions of later adjustment with internalizing and externalizing dimensions of behavior.Child Development, 55, 137–150.
- Gesten, E. L. (1976). A Health Resources Inventory: The development of a measure of the personal and social competence of primary grade children.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 775–786.
- Harter, S., & Pike, R. (1983).Manual for the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children. Unpublished manual, University of Denver.
- Harter, S., & Pike, R. (1984). The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children.Child Development, 55, 1969–1982.
- Hightower, A. D., Spinell, A., & Lotyczewski, B. S. (1986).Primary Mental Health Project Child Rating Scale Guidelines. Unpublished manual, University of Rochester.
- Hollingshead, A. B. (1975).Four factor index of social status. New Haven: Yale University, Department of Sociology.
- Lewis, M., Feiring, C., McGuffog, C., & Jaskir, J. (1984). Predicting psychopathology in six-year-olds from early social relations.Child Development, 55, 123–136.
- McGee, R., Silva, P. A., & Williams, S. (1984). Perinatal, neurological, environmental, and developmental characteristics of seven-year-old children with stable behavior problems.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 25, 573–586.
- Myers, J. K., & Weissman, M. M. (1980). Use of a self-report symptom scale to detect depression in a community sample.American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 1081–1084.
- Pelham, W., & Bender, M. E. (1982). Peer relations in hyperactive children: Description and treatment. In K. Gadow & I. Bialer (Eds.),Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities (Vol. 1, pp. 283–339). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
- Radloff, L. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population.Journal of Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401.
- Richman, N., Stevenson, J., & Graham, P. J. (1982).Preschool to school: A behavioral study. London: Academic Press.
- Rose, S. L., Rose, S. A., & Feldman, J. F. (1989). Stability of behavior problems in very young children.Development and Psychopathology, 1, 5–20.
- Sameroff, A. J., & Chandler, M. (1975). Reproductive risk and the continuum of caretaking casualty. In F. D. Horowitz (Ed.),Review of child development research (Vol. 4). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Sarason, I. G., Johnson, J. A., and Siegel, J. M. (1978). Assessing the impact of life changes: Development of the Life Experiences Survey.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 932–946.
- Spanier, G. B. (1976). Measuring dyadic adjustment: New scales for assessing the quality of marriage and similar dyads.Journal of Marriage and the Family, 38, 15–28.
- Sroufe, L. A., & Rutter, M. (1984). The domain of developmental psychopathology.Child Development, 55, 17–29.
- Terman, L. M. and Merrill, M. A. (1973).Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
- Hard-to-manage preschool boys: Externalizing behavior, social competence, and family context at two-year followup
Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Volume 22, Issue 2 , pp 147-166
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Psychology, Clinical Psychology Program, University of Pittsburgh, 4015 O'Hara St., 15260, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania