Annals of Operations Research

, Volume 63, Issue 5, pp 511-623

First online:

Metaheuristics: A bibliography

  • Ibrahim H. OsmanAffiliated withInstitute of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Kent
  • , Gilbert LaporteAffiliated withCentre de recherche sur les transports, Université de Montréal

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Metaheuristics are the most exciting development in approximate optimization techniques of the last two decades. They have had widespread successes in attacking a variety of difficult combinatorial optimization problems that arise in many practical areas. This bibliography provides a classification of a comprehensive list of 1380 references on the theory and application of metaheuristics. Metaheuristics include but are not limited to constraint logic programming; greedy random adaptive search procedures; natural evolutionary computation; neural networks; non-monotonic search strategies; space-search methods; simulated annealing; tabu search; threshold algorithms and their hybrids. References are presented in alphabetical order under a number of subheadings.


Artificial intelligence bibliography combinatorial optimization constraint logic programming evolutionary computation genetic algorithms greedy random adaptive search procedure heuristics hybrids local search metaheuristics neural networks non-monotonic search strategies problem-space method simulated annealing tabu search threshold algorithms