We give various characterizations ofk-vertex connected graphs by geometric, algebraic, and “physical” properties. As an example, a graphG isk-connected if and only if, specifying anyk vertices ofG, the vertices ofG can be represented by points of ℝk−1 so that nok are on a hyper-plane and each vertex is in the convex hull of its neighbors, except for thek specified vertices. The proof of this theorem appeals to physics. The embedding is found by letting the edges of the graph behave like ideal springs and letting its vertices settle in equilibrium.
As an algorithmic application of our results we give probabilistic (Monte-Carlo and Las Vegas) algorithms for computing the connectivity of a graph. Our algorithms are faster than the best known (deterministic) connectivity algorithms for allk≧√n, and for very dense graphs the Monte Carlo algorithm is faster by a linear factor.