The chronic toxicity of 3-chloro-4-methyl benzamine HCl to birds

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Abstract

3-Chloro-4-methyl benzamine HCl (DRC-1339), an avian toxicant, was fed to five species of birds for periods up to 120 days. The 30-day LC50 of uniformly treated feed for starlings was 4.7 ppm and the 90-day LC50 was 1.0 ppm. The 28-day LC50 for coturnix was 18 ppm. The 30-day LC50 for pigeons was less than 100 ppm. Pheasants fed diets containing 2% DRC-1339 baits diluted to a rate of 286 ppm of DRC-1339 died within 22 days. Bobwhite quail fed similar diets suffered some mortality at levels as low as 2.9 ppm, but most survived 10 times this dosage level for the 120-day test period. Application of the Kenaga “Index of Chronicity,” resulted in the conclusion that DRC-1339 was cumulatively toxic to birds.

Reproduction in coturnix was adversely affected by treatments at 10 ppm of DRC-1339 and above. Reproduction in pigeons was adversely affected by a treatment of 25 ppm. In coturnix, DRC-1339 caused an increased incidence of egg breakage and decreased both egg and live chick production. In pigeons, DRC-1339 caused an increase in the proportion of infertile eggs. Reproductive ability of first generation offspring was not affected when parent coturnix and pigeons were fed DRC-1339.

These data emphasize the need for care in the use of DRC-1339. The bait should be used only as registered and care exercised in storage and disposal of unused baits to avoid poisoning of nontarget species.